imipramine, Tofranil, Tofranil-PM
Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD
Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD
Dr. Ogbru received his Doctorate in Pharmacy from the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy in 1995. He completed a Pharmacy Practice Residency at the University of Arizona/University Medical Center in 1996. He was a Professor of Pharmacy Practice and a Regional Clerkship Coordinator for the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy from 1996-99.
Medical and Pharmacy Editor:
GENERIC NAME: imipramine
BRAND NAME: Tofranil, Tofranil-PM
DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: Imipramine is an antidepressant medication of the tricyclic class. Medications in this class are often referred to as tricyclic antidepressants or TCAs. Depression is defined as an all-pervasive sense of sadness and gloom. In patients with depression, abnormal levels of chemicals in the brain (called neurotransmitters) may be the cause of their depression. These neurotransmitters are chemicals that the nerves in the brain use to communicate with each other. Imipramine is believed to elevate mood by raising the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain. Imipramine was first synthesized in the late 1940s and was approved by the FDA for depression in 1959 and for enuresis in 1973. PRESCRIPTION: Yes
GENERIC AVAILABLE: Yes
PREPARATIONS: Tablets: 10, 25 and 50 mg. Capsule: 75, 100, 125 and 150 mg.
STORAGE: Imipramine should be stored below 86 F (30 C) in a tight, light resistant container.
DOSING: The dose range for treating depression is 75 to 300 mg daily. It may be given as a single dose or in divided doses. The recommended dose for enuresis is 10 to 75 mg daily at bedtime.
DRUG INTERACTIONS: Other medications and drugs that slow the brain's processes, such as alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, for example, lorazepam (Ativan), diazepam (Valium), temazepam (Restoril), oxazepam (Serax), clonazepam (Klonopin), zolpidem (Ambien), and narcotics, may add to the effect of imipramine on the brain.
Reserpine, given to patients taking TCAs, can cause agitation and anxiety. Imipramine and other TCAs should not be used with monoamine oxidase inhibiting drugs, for example, isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate), and procarbazine (Matulane), since high fever, convulsions and even death can occur.
Concurrent use of cimetidine (Tagamet) can increase imipramine blood levels by reducing elimination of imipramine from the body and possibly lead to imipramine- related side effects. Other drugs which share this effect include propafenone (Rythmol), flecainide (Tonocard), quinidine (Quinidex, Quinaglute), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and fluoxetine (Prozac).
PREGNANCY: Use of imipramine during pregnancy has not been adequately evaluated.
NURSING MOTHERS: Available evidence suggests that imipramine may be excreted in breast milk and may be harmful to the infant.
SIDE EFFECTS: The most common side effects of imipramine are nausea, vomiting, weakness, confusion, anxiety, insomnia, increased heart rate, heart palpitations, blurred vision, difficulty urinating, dry mouth, constipation, weight gain or loss, rash, hives, and impotence.
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