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- Hypothyroidism during pregnancy facts
- What is Hypothyroidism?
- What is the thyroid gland?
- What happens with thyroid disease?
- How is hypothyroidism treated during pregnancy?
- What are the consequences of hypothyroidism during pregnancy?
- How early does the mother's thyroid hormone affect the unborn baby?
- What can be done to avoid the consequences of hypothyroidism in pregnancy?
Quick GuideThyroid Anatomy, Symptoms, and Disorders
What is the thyroid gland?
The thyroid is a gland weighing about 15 grams (about half an ounce) that is located in the front of the neck just below the Adam's apple (cricoid cartilage). The thyroid gland is responsible for the production of the body's thyroid hormone. The thyroid responds to hormonal signals from the brain to maintain a constant level of thyroid hormone. The hormone signals are sent by specialized areas of the brain (hypothalamus and pituitary), eventually sending thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) that promotes thyroid hormone production by the thyroid gland.
What happens with thyroid disease?
Disease of the thyroid gland is extremely common. In some conditions, the thyroid may produce too much hormone. In other conditions, the thyroid may be damaged or destroyed and little, if any, thyroid hormone is produced. The main thyroid hormone is called thyroxine, or T4.
Symptoms vary depending on whether there is too much or too little T4 present in the blood. With an excess of T4 (hyperthyroidism), patients complain of feeling restless, emotionally hyper, and hot and sweaty. They may have tremors, trouble concentrating, and weight loss. Frequent bowel movements and diarrhea are common.
If T4 levels are low (hypothyroidism) as a result of decreased production by the thyroid gland, patients often experience fatigue, lethargy, and weight gain. Constipation is common and many patients report feeling excessively cold.