Hyperthyroidism

  • Medical Author:
    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD

    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.

  • Medical Author: Ruchi Mathur, MD, FRCP(C)
    Ruchi Mathur, MD, FRCP(C)

    Ruchi Mathur, MD, FRCP(C) is an Attending Physician with the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism and Associate Director of Clinical Research, Recruitment and Phenotyping with the Center for Androgen Related Disorders, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center.

  • Medical Editor: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
    William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR

    William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR

    Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.

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Hyperthyroidism definition and facts

  • Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which there is an excessive amount of thyroid hormones.
  • Thyroid hormones regulate the metabolism of the cells.
  • Normally, the rate of thyroid hormone production is controlled by the brain from the pituitary gland, which is in turn regulated by the hypthalamus.
  • There are many possible causes of hyperthyroidism.
  • Graves' disease, the most common cause of hyperthyroidism, can be associated with eye disease (Graves' opthalmopathy).
  • Common symptoms of hyperthyroidism include
  • Treatments for hyperthyroidism include antithyroid medications, radioactive ablation, and surgery.

What is hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which an overactive thyroid gland is producing an excessive amount of thyroid hormones that circulate in the blood. ("Hyper" means "over" in Greek). Thyroid hormones include thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), representing 99.9% and 0.1% of thyroid hormones, respectively. T3 is actually the most active thyroid hormone. Much of the T4 is converted to T3 in the bloodstream.

The thyroid itself is regulated by the pituitary gland in the brain. The pituitary is further regulated by another gland in the brain, the hypothalamus.

The hypothalamus releases a hormone called thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), which sends a signal to the pituitary gland to release thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In turn, TSH sends a signal to the thyroid to release thyroid hormones. With overactivity of any of these three glands, an excessive amount of thyroid hormones can be produced, thereby resulting in hyperthyroidism

Thyrotoxicosis is a toxic condition that is caused by an excess of thyroid hormones from any cause. Thyrotoxicosis can be caused by an excessive intake of thyroid hormone or by overproduction of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland. Because both health-care professionals and patients often use these words interchangeably, we will take some liberty by using the term "hyperthyroidism" throughout this article.

Thyroid Gland illustration - Hyperthyroidism
Thyroid Gland illustration - Hyperthyroidism

Quick GuideHyperthyroidism Symptoms and Treatment

Hyperthyroidism Symptoms and Treatment

10 Thyroid Disorder Symptoms and Signs

Thyroid disease is a common problem because of over- or under function of the thyroid gland. Ten common signs and symptoms of thyroid disease include:

  1. Feeling bloated
  2. Weight gain
  3. Mental fogginess
  4. Aches and pains
  5. Nervousness...

What are the symptoms of hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism due to any cause is suggested by several signs and symptoms; however, patients with mild disease usually experience no symptoms. In patients older than 70 years, the typical signs and symptoms also may be absent. In general, the symptoms become more obvious as the degree of hyperthyroidism increases. The symptoms usually are related to an increase in the metabolic rate of the body.

Common symptoms include:

  • Excessive sweating
  • Heat intolerance
  • Increased bowel movements
  • Tremor (usually fine shaking)
  • Nervousness, agitation, anxiety
  • Rapid heart rate, palpitations, irregular heart rate
  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue, weakness
  • Decreased concentration
  • Irregular and scant menstrual flow
  • Fine or brittle hair
  • Thinning skin
  • Sleep disturbances

In older patients, irregular heart rhythms and heart failure can occur. In its most severe form, untreated hyperthyroidism may result in "thyroid storm," a condition involving high blood pressure, fever, and heart failure. Mental changes, such as confusion and delirium, also may result.

What causes hyperthyroidism?

Some common causes of hyperthyroidism include:

What is graves' disease?

Graves' disease, which is caused by a generalized overactivity of the thyroid gland, is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. In this condition, the thyroid gland usually is renegade, which means it has lost the ability to respond to the normal control by the pituitary gland via TSH. Graves' disease is hereditary and is up to five times more common among women than men.

Graves' disease is thought to be an autoimmune disease, and antibodies that are characteristic of the illness may be found in the blood. These antibodies include thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI antibodies), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO), and TSH receptor antibodies.

What are the symptoms of Graves' disease?

In addition to the symptoms of hyperthyroidism mentioned above, Grave's disease may be associated with eye disease (Graves' ophthalmopathy) and skin lesions (dermopathy). Ophthalmopathy can occur before, after, or at the same time as the hyperthyroidism. Early on, it may cause sensitivity to light and a feeling of "sand in the eyes." The eyes may be reddened and produce excess tears. Swelling behind the eyeballs causes the eyes to protrude, and double vision can occur. The degree of ophthalmopathy is worsened in those who smoke.

The course of the eye disease is often independent of the thyroid disease, and steroid medications may be necessary to control the inflammation that causes the ophthalmopathy. In addition, surgical intervention may be required. The skin condition (dermopathy) is rare and causes a painless, red, lumpy skin rash on the front of the legs.

What are the triggers for Graves' disease?

The triggers for Graves' disease include:

Graves' disease can be diagnosed by a standard, nuclear medicine thyroid scan which shows diffusely increased uptake of a radioactively-labelled iodine. In addition, a blood test may reveal elevated TSI levels.

Quick GuideHyperthyroidism Symptoms and Treatment

Hyperthyroidism Symptoms and Treatment

What is thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid)?

Inflammation of the thyroid gland may occur after a viral illness (subacute thyroiditis). This condition is association with a fever and a sore throat that is often painful on swallowing. The thyroid gland is also tender to touch. There may be generalized neck aches and pains. Inflammation of the gland with an accumulation of white blood cells known as lymphocytes (lymphocytic thyroiditis) may also occur. In both of these conditions, the inflammation leaves the thyroid gland "leaky," so that the amount of thyroid hormone entering the blood is increased. Lymphocytic thyroiditis is most common after a pregnancy and can actually occur in up to 8% of women after delivery. In these cases, the hyperthyroid phase can last from 4 to 12 weeks and is often followed by a hypothyroid (low thyroid output) phase that can last for up to 6 months. The majority of affected women return to a state of normal thyroid function. Thyroiditis can be diagnosed by a thyroid scan.

What are other causes of hyperthyroidism?

Functioning adenoma and toxic multinodular goiter

The thyroid gland (like many other areas of the body) becomes lumpier as we get older. In the majority of cases, these lumps do not produce thyroid hormones and require no treatment. Occasionally, a nodule may become "autonomous," which means that it does not respond to pituitary regulation and produces thyroid hormones independently. This becomes more likely if the nodule is larger than 3 cm. When there is a single nodule that is independently producing thyroid hormones, it is called a functioning nodule. If there is more than one functioning nodule, the term toxic, multinodular goiter is used. Functioning nodules may be readily detected with a thyroid scan.

Excessive intake of thyroid hormones

Taking too much thyroid hormone medication is actually quite common. Excessive doses of thyroid hormones frequently go undetected due to the lack of follow-up of patients taking their thyroid medicine. Other persons may be abusing the drug in an attempt to achieve other goals such as weight loss. These patients can be identified by having a low uptake of radioactively-labelled iodine (radioiodine) on a thyroid scan.

Abnormal secretion of TSH

A tumor in the pituitary gland may produce an abnormally high secretion of TSH (the thyroid stimulating hormone produced by the pituitary gland). This leads to excessive signaling to the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. This condition is very rare and can be associated with other abnormalities of the pituitary gland. To identify this disorder, an endocrinologist performs elaborate tests to assess the release of TSH.

Excessive iodine intake

The thyroid gland uses iodine to make thyroid hormones. An excess of iodine may cause hyperthyroidism. Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism is usually seen in patients who already have an underlying abnormal thyroid gland. Certain medications, such as amiodarone (Cordarone), which is used in the treatment of heart problems, contain a large amount of iodine and may be associated with thyroid function abnormalities.

Which types of doctors treat hyperthyroidism?

Endocrinologists are specialists in diagnosing and treating hormonal disorders such as hyperthyroidism. Primary care physicians, including family practitioners and internists, may also be involved in treating patients with hyperthyroidism. Ophthalmologists and ophthalmic surgeons may be involved in the care of patients with Graves' disease.

How is hyperthyroidism diagnosed?

Hyperthyroidism can be suspected in patients with

There may be puffiness around the eyes and a characteristic stare due to the elevation of the upper eyelids. Advanced symptoms are easily detected, but early symptoms, especially in the elderly, may be quite inconspicuous. In all cases, a blood test is needed to confirm the diagnosis.

The blood levels of thyroid hormones can be measured directly and usually are elevated with hyperthyroidism. However, the main tool for detection of hyperthyroidism is measurement of the blood TSH level. As mentioned earlier, TSH is secreted by the pituitary gland. If an excess amount of thyroid hormone is present, TSH is "down-regulated" and the level of TSH falls in an attempt to reduce production of thyroid hormone. Thus, the measurement of TSH should result in low or undetectable levels in cases of hyperthyroidism. However, there is one exception. If the excessive amount of thyroid hormone is due to a TSH-secreting pituitary tumor, then the levels of TSH will be abnormally high. This uncommon disease is known as "secondary hyperthyroidism."

Although the blood tests mentioned previously can confirm the presence of excessive thyroid hormone, they do not point to a specific cause. If there is obvious involvement of the eyes, a diagnosis of Graves' disease is almost certain. A combination of antibody screening (for Graves' disease) and a thyroid scan using radioactively-labelled iodine (which concentrates in the thyroid gland) can help diagnose the underlying thyroid disease. These investigations are chosen on a case-by-case basis.

Quick GuideHyperthyroidism Symptoms and Treatment

Hyperthyroidism Symptoms and Treatment

How is medications treat hyperthyroidism?

The options for treating hyperthyroidism include:

  • Treating the symptoms
  • Antithyroid drugs
  • Radioactive iodine
  • Surgery treating symptoms

Medications that treat symptoms of hyperthyroidism

There are medications available to immediately treat the symptoms caused by excessive thyroid hormones, such as a rapid heart rate. One of the main classes of drugs used to treat these symptoms is the beta-blockers [for example, propranolol (Inderal), atenolol (Tenormin), metoprolol (Lopressor)]. These medications counteract the effect of thyroid hormone to increase metabolism, but they do not alter the levels of thyroid hormones in the blood. A doctor determines which patients to treat based on a number of variables including the underlying cause of hyperthyroidism, the age of the patient, the size of the thyroid gland, and the presence of coexisting medical illnesses.

Antithyroid drugs for hyperthyroidism

There are two main antithyroid drugs available for use in the United States, methimazole (Tapazole) and propylthiouracil (PTU). These drugs accumulate in the thyroid tissue and block production of thyroid hormones. PTU also blocks the conversion of T4 hormone to the more metabolically active T3 hormone. The major risk of these medications is occasional suppression of production of white blood cells by the bone marrow (agranulocytosis). (White cells are needed to fight infection.) It is impossible to tell if and when this side effect is going to occur, so regular determination of white blood cells in the blood are not useful.

It is important for patients to know that if they develop a fever, a sore throat, or any signs of infection while taking methimazole or propylthiouracil, they should see a doctor immediately. While a concern, the actual risk of developing agranulocytosis is less than 1%. In general, patients should be seen by the doctor at monthly intervals while taking antithyroid medication. The dose is adjusted to maintain the patient in as close to a normal thyroid state as possible (euthyroid). Once the dosing is stable, patients can be seen at three month intervals if long-term therapy is planned.

Usually, long-term antithyroid therapy is only used for patients with Graves' disease, since this disease may actually go into remission under treatment without requiring treatment with thyroid radiation or surgery. If treated from one to two years, data shows remission rates of 40%-70%. When the disease is in remission, the gland is no longer overactive, and antithyroid medication is not needed.

Recent studies also have shown that adding a pill of thyroid hormone to the antithyroid medication actually results in higher remission rates. The rationale for this may be that by providing an external source for thyroid hormone, higher doses of antithyroid medications can be given, which may suppress the overactive immune system in persons with Graves' disease. This type of therapy remains controversial, however. When long-term therapy is withdrawn, patients should continue to be seen by the doctor every three months for the first year, since a relapse of Graves' disease is most likely in this time period. If a patient does relapse, antithyroid drug therapy can be restarted, or radioactive iodine or surgery may be considered.

Radioactive iodine for hyperthyroidism

Radioactive iodine is given orally (either by pill or liquid) on a one-time basis to ablate a hyperactive gland. The iodine given for ablative treatment is different from the iodine used in a scan. (For treatment, the isotope iodine 131 is used, while for a routine scan, iodine 123 is used.) Radioactive iodine is given after a routine iodine scan, and uptake of the iodine is determined to confirm hyperthyroidism. The radioactive iodine is picked up by the active cells in the thyroid and destroys them. Since iodine is only picked up by thyroid cells, the destruction is local, and there are no widespread side effects with this therapy.

Radioactive iodine ablation has been safely used for over 50 years, and the only major reasons for not using it are pregnancy and breast-feeding. This form of therapy is the treatment of choice for recurring Graves' disease, patients with severe cardiac involvement, those with multinodular goiter or toxic adenomas, and patients who cannot tolerate antithyroid drugs. Radioactive iodine must be used with caution in patients with Graves' related eye disease since recent studies have shown that the eye disease may worsen after therapy. If a woman chooses to become pregnant after ablation, it is recommended she wait 8-12 months after treatment before conceiving.

In general, more than 80% of patients are cured with a single dose of radioactive iodine. It takes between 8 to 12 weeks for the thyroid to become normal after therapy. Permanent hypothyroidism is the major complication of this form of treatment. While a temporary hypothyroid state may be seen up to six months after treatment with radioactive iodine, if it persists longer than six months, thyroid replacement therapy (with T4 or T3) usually is begun.

Surgery for hyperthyroidism

Surgery to partially remove the thyroid gland (partial thyroidectomy) was once a common form of treatment for hyperthyroidism. The goal is to remove the thyroid tissue that was producing the excessive thyroid hormone. However, if too much tissue is removed, an inadequate production of thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism) may result. In this case, thyroid replacement therapy is begun. The major complication of surgery is disruption of the surrounding tissue, including the nerves supplying the vocal cords and the four tiny glands in the neck that regulate calcium levels in the body (the parathyroid glands). Accidental removal of these glands may result in low calcium levels and require calcium replacement therapy.

With the introduction of radioactive iodine therapy and antithyroid drugs, surgery for hyperthyroidism is not as common as it used to be. Surgery is appropriate for:

  • pregnant patients and children who have major adverse reactions to antithyroid medications.
  • patients with very large thyroid glands and in those who have symptoms stemming from compression of tissues adjacent to the thyroid, such as difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, and shortness of breath.

What should I do if I think I have hyperthyroidism?

If you are concerned that you may have an excess amount of thyroid hormone, you should mention your symptoms to your doctor. A simple blood test is the first step in the diagnosis. From there, both you and your doctor can decide what the next step should be. If treatment is warranted, it is important for you to let your doctor know of any concerns or questions you have about the options available. Remember that thyroid disease is very common, and in good hands, the diseases that cause an excess of thyroid hormones can be easily diagnosed and treated.

REFERENCE:

<http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/121865-overview>

Last Editorial Review: 8/1/2016

Reviewed on 8/1/2016
References
REFERENCE:

<http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/121865-overview>

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