Hyperparathyroidism

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Why are calcium and phosphorous so important?

Calcium is essential for good health. It plays an important role in bone and tooth development and in maintaining bone strength. Calcium is also important in nerve transmission and muscle contraction.

Phosphorus is found in all bodily tissue. It is a main part of every cell with many roles in each. Combined with calcium, phosphorus gives strength and rigidity to your bones and teeth.

What causes hyperparathyroidism?

In most cases doctors don't know the cause. The vast majority of cases occur in people with no family history of the disorder. Only about 5 percent of cases can be linked to an inherited problem. Familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is a rare, inherited syndrome that affects the parathyroids as well as the pancreas and the pituitary gland. Another rare genetic disorder, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, is sometimes confused with typical hyperparathyroidism. Each accounts for about 2 percent of primary hyperparathyroidism cases.

How common is hyperparathyroidism?

In the United States, about 100,000 people develop the disorder each year. Women outnumber men two to one, and risk increases with age. In women 60 years and older, two out of 1,000 will develop hyperparathyroidism each year.

What are the symptoms of hyperparathyroidism?

A person with hyperparathyroidism may have severe symptoms, subtle ones, or none at all. Increasingly, routine blood tests that screen for a wide range of conditions, including high calcium levels, are alerting doctors to people who have mild forms of the disorder even though they are symptom-free.

When symptoms do appear, they are often mild and nonspecific, such as a feeling of weakness and fatigue, depression, or aches and pains. With more severe disease, a person may have a loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, constipation, confusion or impaired thinking and memory, and increased thirst and urination. Patients may have thinning of the bones without symptoms, but with risk of fractures. Increased calcium and phosphorus excretion in the urine may cause kidney stones.

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