Hyperglycemia (cont.)

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How is hyperglycemia diagnosed?

There are different kinds of blood tests that can diagnose hyperglycemia. These include

  • Random blood glucose: this test reflects the blood sugar level at a given point in time. Normal values are generally between 70 and 125 mg/dL, as discussed earlier.
  • Fasting blood glucose: this is a measurement of blood sugar level taken in the early morning prior to eating or drinking anything since the night before. Normal fasting blood glucose levels are less than 100 mg/dL. Levels above 100 mg/dL up to 125 mg/dL suggest prediabetes, while levels of 126 mg/dL or above are diagnostic of diabetes.
  • Oral glucose tolerance test: this is a test that measures blood glucose levels at given time points after a dose of sugar is consumed. This test is most commonly used to diagnose gestational diabetes.
  • Glycohemoglobin A1c: is a measurement of glucose that is bound to red blood cells and provides an indication about blood sugar levels over the past 2 to 3 months.

How is hyperglycemia treated?

Mild or transient hyperglycemia may not need medical treatment, depending upon the cause. People with mildly elevated glucose or prediabetes can often lower their glucose levels by incorporating diet and lifestyle changes. To assure that you chose the right dietary and lifestyle changes , you should speak with your health care professional or use reliable resources such as the American Diabetes Association.

Insulin is the treatment of choice for people with type 1 diabetes and for life-threatening increases in glucose levels. People with type 2 diabetes may be managed with a combination of different oral and injectable medications. Some people with type 2 diabetes also take insulin.

Hyperglycemia due to medical conditions other than diabetes is generally treated by addressing the underlying condition responsible for the elevated glucose. In some cases, insulin may be needed to stabilize glucose levels during this treatment.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 3/19/2013

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