hydrochlorothiazide, (Hydrodiuril, Ezide, Hydro-Par [discontinued]), Microzide, and many others
Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD
Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD
Dr. Ogbru received his Doctorate in Pharmacy from the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy in 1995. He completed a Pharmacy Practice Residency at the University of Arizona/University Medical Center in 1996. He was a Professor of Pharmacy Practice and a Regional Clerkship Coordinator for the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy from 1996-99.
Medical and Pharmacy Editor:
GENERIC NAME: hydrochlorothiazide
BRAND NAMES: Hydrodiuril (discontinued), Ezide (discontinued), Hydro-Par (discontinued), Microzide, and many combinations with other drugs
DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic (water pill) used for treating high blood pressure (hypertension) and accumulation of fluid (edema). It works by blocking salt and fluid reabsorption from the urine in the kidneys, causing increased urine output (diuresis). Its mechanism of action in lowering high blood pressure is not well understood. The FDA approved hydrochlorothiazide in February 1959.
GENERIC AVAILABLE: Yes
PREPARATIONS: Tablets: 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg; Capsules: 12.5 mg
STORAGE: Hydrochlorothiazide should be stored at room temperature, 15 C to 30 C (59 F to 86 F), in a tight, light-resistant container.
PRESCRIBED FOR: Hydrochlorothiazide is used to treat excessive fluid accumulation and swelling (edema) of the body caused by heart failure, cirrhosis, chronic kidney failure, corticosteroid medications, and nephrotic syndrome. It also is used alone or in conjunction with other blood pressure lowering medications to treat high blood pressure. Although hydrochlorothiazide is approved for treating edema in cirrhosis of the liver, it is rarely used because of the availability of other diuretics that are more effective. Hydrochlorothiazide can be used to treat calcium-containing kidney stones because it decreases the amount of calcium excreted by the kidneys in the urine and thus decreases the amount of calcium in urine to form stones.
DOSING: Hydrochlorothiazide may be taken with or without food. The usual adult dose for hypertension is 12.5 to 50 mg once daily. The usual adult dose for treating edema is 25-100 mg once daily or in divided doses.
DRUG INTERACTIONS: Hydrochlorothiazide reduces the elimination of lithium (Lithobid, Eskalith) by the kidneys and can lead to lithium toxicity. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), for example, ibuprofen (Motrin), may reduce the blood pressure lowering effects of hydrochlorothiazide. Blood sugar levels can be elevated by hydrochlorothiazide, necessitating adjustment in the doses of medications that are used for treating diabetes. Combining hydrochlorothiazide with corticosteroids may increase the risk for low levels of blood potassium and other electrolytes. Low blood potassium (hypokalemia) can increase the toxicity of digoxin (Lanoxin).
PREGNANCY: There are no adequate studies of hydrochlorothiazide in pregnant women. Thiazides may increase the risk of fetal or neonatal jaundice, low platelet levels, and possibly other adverse reactions that have occurred in adults.
NURSING MOTHERS: Hydrochlorothiazide is excreted in breast milk. Intense diuresis using hydrochlorothiazide may reduce the production of breast milk. Otherwise hydrochlorothiazide is considered safe to use during nursing if required by the mother.
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