High Blood Pressure Hypertension Related Diseases & Conditions

Medical conditions are often related to other diseases and conditions. Our doctors have compiled a list of ailments related to the topic of High Blood Pressure Hypertension. These conditions may be a cause or symptom of High Blood Pressure Hypertension or be a condition for which you may be at increased risk.

  • Kidney Failure Kidney failure can occur from an acute event or a chronic condition or disease. Prerenal kidney failure is caused by blood loss,...learn more »
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with rickets, cancer, cardiovascular disease, severe asthma in children and cognitive...learn more »
  • Blood Clots Blood clots can occur in the venous and arterial vascular system. Blood clots can form in the heart, legs, arteries, veins,...learn more »
  • Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Congestive heart failure (CHF) refers to a condition in which the heart loses the ability to function properly. Heart disease,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Article
    • What is congestive heart failure (CHF)?
    • What causes congestive heart failure?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure?
    • What are the risk factors for congestive heart failure?
    • How is congestive heart failure diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for congestive heart failure?
    • What is the prognosis for congestive heart failure?
    • Can congestive heart failure be prevented?
  • Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2) Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2) Article
    • Diabetes facts
    • What is diabetes?
    • What is the impact of diabetes?
    • What causes diabetes?
    • What are the different types of diabetes?
    • Type 1 diabetes
    • Type 2 diabetes
    • Other types of diabetes
    • What are diabetes symptoms?
    • How is diabetes diagnosed?
    • Why is blood sugar checked at home?
    • What are the acute complications of diabetes?
    • What are the chronic complications of diabetes?
    • What can be done to slow diabetes complications?
  • Edema Edema is the swelling of tissues as a result of excess water accumulations. Peripheral edema occurs in the feet and legs. There...learn more »
    In This Article
    Edema Article
    • Edema facts
    • What is edema?
    • What is pitting edema and how does it differ from non-pitting edema?
    • What causes pitting edema?
    • How does salt intake affect edema?
    • Why does a patient with heart disease retain fluid?
    • Why do patients with liver disease develop ascites and edema?
    • Why does edema occur in patients with kidney disease?
    • What is idiopathic edema?
    • How does venous insufficiency cause edema?
    • Which diuretics are used to treat edema?
    • Are diuretics used for other purposes?
  • Headache Headaches can be divided into two categories: primary headaches and secondary headaches. Migraine headaches, tension headaches,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Headache Article
    • Headache facts
    • What is a headache?
    • How are headaches classified?
    • What are primary headaches?
    • What are secondary headaches?
    • What are cranial neuralgias, facial pain, and other headaches?
    • What causes tension headaches?
    • What are the symptoms of tension headaches?
    • How are tension headaches diagnosed?
    • How are tension headaches treated?
    • What causes cluster headaches?
    • What are the symptoms of cluster headaches?
    • How are cluster headaches diagnosed?
    • How are cluster headaches treated?
    • Can cluster headaches be prevented?
    • What diseases cause secondary headaches?
    • How are secondary headaches diagnosed?
    • What are the exams and tests for secondary headaches?
    • When should I seek medical care for a headache?
  • Dizziness Dizziness is a symptom that is often applies to a variety of sensations including lightheadedness and vertigo. Causes of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Dizziness Article
    • Dizziness facts
    • Introduction to dizziness (feeling dizzy)
    • What are some common causes of dizziness?
    • Low blood pressure
    • Postural or orthostatic hypotension
    • High blood pressure
    • Diabetes
    • Endocrine diseases
    • Hyperventilation
    • Heart conditions
    • Vasovagal syncope
    • Dizziness and vertigo
    • What are the symptoms experienced when a person feels dizzy?
    • When should I call the doctor for dizziness?
    • How is dizziness diagnosed?
    • How is dizziness/vertigo diagnosed?
    • How is dizziness treated?
  • Anxiety Anxiety is a feeling of apprehension and fear characterized by physical symptoms. Anxiety disorders are serious medical illnesses...learn more »
    In This Article
    Anxiety Article
    • Generalized anxiety disorder facts
    • What is generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)?
    • What are the different types of anxiety?
    • How common is generalized anxiety disorder?
    • What are causes and risk factors for anxiety?
    • What are anxiety symptoms and signs?
    • How is generalized anxiety disorder diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for anxiety?
    • What are the side effects of anxiety medications?
    • What are complications of generalized anxiety disorder?
    • Is it possible to prevent anxiety?
    • What is the prognosis of generalized anxiety disorder?
    • Are there support groups for those with generalized anxiety disorder?
    • Where can people find additional information on generalized anxiety disorder?
  • Fatty Liver Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to a wide spectrum of liver disease ranging from simple fatty liver (steatosis),...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fatty Liver Article
    • Nonalcoholic fatty liver facts
    • What are nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis?
    • Why is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease important?
    • What causes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?
    • What is the difference between nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis?
    • What is the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, and diabetes?
    • What is the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome?
    • What are the symptoms of fatty liver?
    • How is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease diagnosed?
    • What are the other causes of fatty liver?
    • What are the complications of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?
    • How is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease treated?
    • Weight loss and exercise
    • Diet
    • Medications and other treatment options
    • Bariatric surgery
    • Liver transplant
    • What is the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease?
    • What diseases are associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?
    • Does nonalcoholic fatty liver disease occur in children?
  • Insulin Resistance Insulin resistance is the diminished ability of cells to respond to the action of insulin in transporting glucose (sugar) from...learn more »
    In This Article
    Insulin Resistance Article
    • Insulin resistance facts
    • What is insulin resistance?
    • What causes insulin resistance?
    • What is the relationship between insulin resistance and diabetes?
    • What medical conditions are associated with insulin resistance?
    • Who is at risk for insulin resistance?
    • How is insulin resistance diagnosed?
    • How is insulin resistance managed?
    • Lifestyle changes (diet, weight loss, exercise)
    • Medications
    • What's new in insulin resistance?
  • Low Potassium (Hypokalemia) Potassium is an essential electrolyte necessary for cell function. Low potassium (hypokalemia) may be caused by diarrhea,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Low Potassium (Hypokalemia) Article
    • What is is potassium?
    • What are the causes of low potassium (hypokalemia)?
    • What are the symptoms of low potassium?
    • How is low potassium diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for low potassium?
    • How can low potassium be prevented?
  • Hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia is a serious health problem for diabetics. There are two types of hyperglycemia, 1) fasting, and 2)postprandial or...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hyperglycemia Article
    • Hyperglycemia facts
    • What is hyperglycemia?
    • What causes hyperglycemia?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia?
    • How is hyperglycemia diagnosed?
    • How is hyperglycemia treated?
    • What are the complications of hyperglycemia?
  • Thyroid Cancer There are four major types of thyroid cancer: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. Tumors on the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Thyroid Cancer Article
    • Thyroid cancer facts*
    • What is the thyroid?
    • What is cancer?
    • What are the different types of thyroid cancer?
    • Thyroid cancer symptoms*
    • How is thyroid cancer diagnosed?
    • How is staging determined for thyroid cancer?
    • What is the treatment for thyroid cancer?
    • Surgery
    • Thyroid hormone treatment
    • Radioactive iodine therapy
    • External radiation therapy
    • Chemotherapy
    • Second opinion
    • Follow-up care
    • Sources of support
    • Taking part in cancer research
  • Seizure (Epilepsy) Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which the person has seizures. There are two kinds of seizures, focal and generalized. There are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Seizure (Epilepsy) Article
    • Epilepsy Facts*
    • Introduction
    • What is epilepsy?
    • What causes epilepsy?
    • What are the different kinds of seizures?
    • Focal seizures
    • Generalized seizures
    • What are the different kinds of epilepsy?
    • When are seizures not epilepsy?
    • First seizures
    • Febrile seizures
    • Nonepileptic events
    • Eclampsia
    • How is epilepsy diagnosed?
    • Can epilepsy be prevented?
    • How can epilepsy be treated?
    • How does epilepsy affect daily life?
    • Are there special risks associated with epilepsy?
    • What research is being done on epilepsy?
    • How can I help research on epilepsy?
    • What to do if you see someone having a seizure
    • Conclusion
    • Where can I get more information?
  • Chest Pain Chest pain is a common complaint by a patient in the ER. Causes of chest pain include broken or bruised ribs, pleurisy,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Chest Pain Article
    • Chest pain facts
    • Chest pain introduction
    • What are the sources of chest pain?
    • What are the causes of chest pain?
    • How is chest pain diagnosed?
    • What is the philosophy of the approach to chest pain diagnosis?
    • What is the diagnosis and treatment for chest pain?
    • Broken or bruised ribs
    • Costochondritis
    • Pleuritis or pleurisy
    • Pneumothorax
    • Shingles
    • Pneumonia
    • Pulmonary embolism
    • Angina and heart attack (myocardial infarction)
    • Pericarditis
    • Aorta and aortic dissection
    • Esophagus and reflux esophagitis
    • Referred abdominal pain
  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a ballooning or widening of the main artery (the aorta) as it courses down through the abdomen. Most...learn more »
    In This Article
    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Article
    • Abdominal aortic aneurysm facts
    • What is an aneurysm?
    • What is an aortic aneurysm?
    • What is the thoracic and abdominal aorta?
    • Where do aortic aneurysms tend to develop?
    • What shape are most aortic aneurysms?
    • What is inside an aortic aneurysm?
    • Who is most likely to have an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • What are risk factors of aortic aneurysms?
    • What is the most common cause of aortic aneurysms?
    • What are other causes of aortic aneurysms?
    • What are the symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • How is an abdominal aortic aneurysm diagnosed clinically?
    • What tests help in the diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • What is the natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • What are the complications with an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • How are abdominal aortic aneurysms repaired?
    • What is done if an abdominal aortic aneurysm threatens to rupture?
    • What is the medical management (nonsurgical management) of abdominal aortic aneurysm?
  • Migraine Headache Migraine headaches are severe headaches that are accompanies to sensitivity to light, sounds, and smells. They are often...learn more »
    In This Article
    Migraine Headache Article
    • What is a migraine?
    • What are the risk factors for migraine?
    • What causes migraines?
    • What triggers migraines?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of migraines?
    • How are migraines diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for migraines?
    • What self-care treatment measures work for migraines?
    • How are migraines managed during pregnancy?
    • How are migraines managed in children?
    • What is the prognosis for migraines?
    • Can migraines be prevented?
  • Aneurysm (Brain) Brain aneurysm (cerebral aneurysm) is caused by microscopic damage to artery walls, infections of the artery walls, tumors,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Aneurysm (Brain) Article
    • Brain aneurysm facts
    • What is a brain aneurysm and what causes a brain aneurysm?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of brain aneurysm?
    • How is brain aneurysm diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for brain aneurysm?
    • What is the outcome of brain aneurysm?
    • What are future directions for the treatment of brain aneurysm?
  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), also known by the name Stein-Leventhal syndrome, is a hormonal problem that causes women to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Article
    • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) facts
    • What is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)?
    • What are the symptoms of PCOS?
    • What causes PCOS?
    • How is PCOS diagnosed?
    • What conditions or complications can be associated with PCOS?
    • What treatments are available for PCOS?
  • Fatigue Fatigue can be described in various ways. Sometimes fatigue is described as feeling a lack of energy and motivation (both mental...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fatigue Article
    • Fatigue Facts
    • Fatigue introduction
    • What causes fatigue?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of fatigue?
    • How is the cause of fatigue diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for fatigue?
    • Can fatigue be prevented?
  • Alcoholism Alcoholism is a disease that includes alcohol craving and continued drinking despite repeated alcohol-related problems, such as...learn more »
    In This Article
    Alcoholism Article
    • Alcohol use disorder facts
    • What is alcohol abuse?
    • What is alcoholism?
    • What differentiates alcohol abuse from alcoholism?
    • What are risk factors for alcoholism?
    • What causes alcoholism? Is alcoholism hereditary?
    • What are alcohol use disorder symptoms and signs in teenagers, women, men, and the elderly?
    • How do physicians diagnose alcohol use disorder?
    • What are the stages of alcohol use disorder?
    • What is the treatment for alcohol use disorder?
    • What medications treat alcohol use disorder?
    • How can you tell if someone has a drinking problem?
    • Can an alcoholic just cut back or stop drinking?
    • Is there a safe level of drinking?
    • Is it safe to drink alcohol while pregnant?
    • How can someone find more information or get help or support to treat alcohol use disorder?
    • What are the long-term physical and psychological effects of alcohol use disorder?
    • What is codependency, and what is the treatment for codependency?
    • Is it possible to prevent alcohol use disorder?
    • What is the prognosis of alcohol use disorder?
  • Encephalopathy Encephalopathy means brain disease, damage, or malfunction. Causes of encephalopathy are varied and numerous. The main symptom of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Encephalopathy Article
    • Encephalopathy facts
    • Encephalopathy definition and overview
    • What causes encephalopathy?
    • What are the symptoms of encephalopathy?
    • How is encephalopathy diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for encephalopathy?
    • What are the complications of encephalopathy?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for encephalopathy?
    • Can encephalopathy be prevented?
    • For more information on types of encephalopathy
  • Sleep Apnea Sleep apnea is defined as a reduction or cessation of breathing during sleep. The three types of sleep apnea are central apnea,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Sleep Apnea Article
    • Sleep apnea facts
    • What is sleep apnea?
    • What are the types of sleep apnea?
    • What is central sleep apnea and what causes it?
    • What is obstructive sleep apnea and what causes it?
    • How common is obstructive sleep apnea?
    • What are obstructive sleep apnea symptoms?
    • What are some of the complications of sleep apnea?
    • How is obstructive sleep apnea diagnosed and evaluated?
    • What are the nonsurgical treatments for obstructive sleep apnea?
    • What are the surgical treatments for obstructive sleep apnea?
    • Why is it important to treat obstructive sleep apnea?
  • Nausea and Vomiting Nausea is an uneasiness of the stomach that often precedes vomiting. Nausea and vomiting are not diseases, but they are symptoms...learn more »
    In This Article
    Nausea and Vomiting Article
    • Nausea and vomiting facts
    • Introduction to nausea and vomiting
    • What causes nausea or vomiting?
    • Acute gastritis and nausea and vomiting
    • Central causes of nausea and vomiting
    • Nausea and vomiting associated with illness
    • Nausea and vomiting from medications and medical treatments
    • Nausea and vomiting and bowel obstruction
    • Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (morning sickness)
    • Vomiting in infants
    • What are home remedies for nausea or vomiting?
    • When should I call the doctor regarding nausea and vomiting?
    • How is the source of nausea or vomiting diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for nausea and vomiting?
  • Brain Hemorrhage A brain hemorrhage is a type of stroke caused when an artery bursts in the brain, causing localized bleeding in the surrounding...learn more »
    In This Article
    Brain Hemorrhage Article
    • What is a brain hemorrhage?
    • What causes a brain hemorrhage?
    • What are the symptoms of a brain hemorrhage?
    • How is a brain hemorrhage diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a brain hemorrhage?
    • What is the prognosis after a brain hemorrhage? Is recovery possible?
    • Special situations
  • Heart Attack Heart attack happens when a blood clot completely obstructs a coronary artery supplying blood to the heart muscle. A heart...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attack Article
    • Heart attack facts
    • What is a heart attack?
    • What causes a heart attack?
    • What are the symptoms of a heart attack?
    • What are the complications of a heart attack?
    • What are the risk factors for atherosclerosis and heart attack?
    • How is a heart attack diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for heart attack?
    • What are the risk factors for heart attack in women?
    • What are the symptoms of heart attack in women and how is heart attack diagnosed?
    • How is heart attack in women treated?
    • What about hormone therapy and heart attack in women?
    • What is new in heart attack?
  • Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA, Mini-Stroke) When a portion of the brain loses blood supply, through a blood clot or embolus, a transient ischemic attack (TIA, mini-stroke)...learn more »
    In This Article
    Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA, Mini-Stroke) Article
    • Transient ischemic attack (TIA) facts
    • What is a transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What are the causes of transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What are the risk factors for transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What are the symptoms of transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • How is transient ischemic attack (TIA) diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What is the prognosis for transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
  • Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is an abnormality in the heart rhythm which involves irregular and often rapid beating of the heart. Symptoms...learn more »
    In This Article
    Atrial Fibrillation Article
    • Atrial fibrillation facts
    • What is atrial fibrillation?
    • What causes atrial fibrillation?
    • What are the symptoms of atrial fibrillation?
    • What are the complications of atrial fibrillation?
    • What are the risk factors for developing atrial fibrillation?
    • How is atrial fibrillation diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for atrial fibrillation?
    • Reversing the risk factors that cause atrial fibrillation
    • Slowing the heart rate with medications
    • Anticoagulation to prevent blood clots and strokes
    • Converting atrial fibrillation to a normal rhythm
    • Procedures for treating and preventing atrial fibrillation
    • What is new in atrial fibrillation?
  • Claudication Intermittent claudication, or pain and cramping in the lower leg is caused by inadequate blood flow to the leg muscles. This lack...learn more »
    In This Article
    Claudication Article
    • What is claudication?
    • What causes claudication?
    • What are the symptoms of claudication?
    • Why does claudication come and go?
    • What can cause the artery narrowing that leads to claudication?
    • Who typically is affected by claudication?
    • What are the risk factors for claudication and peripheral vascular disease?
    • How is claudication diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for claudication?
    • Can claudication be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis and treatment for patients with intermittent claudication?
  • Abnormal Heart Rhythms (Heart Rhythm Disorders) Heart rhythm disorders vary from minor palpitations, premature atrial contractions (PACs), premature ventricular contractions...learn more »
    In This Article
    Abnormal Heart Rhythms (Heart Rhythm Disorders) Article
    • How does the heart work?
    • What is a heart rhythm disorder (arrhythmia)?
    • What causes heart rhythm disorders?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of heart rhythm disorders?
    • What are the different types of heart rhythm disorders?
    • Premature atrial contractions (PACs) and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)
    • Sinus tachycardia
    • Sinus bradycardia
    • Abnormal heart rhythms
    • Tachycardia
    • Ventricular fibrillation (V-fib)
    • Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach)
    • Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT)
    • Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) Syndrome
    • Atrial fibrillation
    • Atrial Flutter
    • Bradycardia
    • Heart blocks
    • When to seek medical care
    • How are heart rhythm disorders diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for heart rhythm disorders?
    • What is the prognosis for heart rhythm disorders?
    • Can heart rhythm disorders be prevented?
  • Hyperparathyroidism Hyperparathyroidism is a disorder of the parathyroid glands. There are two types of hyperparathyroidism, primary and secondary....learn more »
    In This Article
    Hyperparathyroidism Article
    • Introduction to hyperparathyroidism
    • What are the parathyroid glands?
    • What is hyperparathyroidism?
    • Why are calcium and phosphorous so important?
    • What causes hyperparathyroidism?
    • How common is hyperparathyroidism?
    • What are the symptoms of hyperparathyroidism?
    • How is hyperparathyroidism diagnosed?
    • How is hyperparathyroidism treated?
    • Are there any complications associated with parathyroid surgery?
    • Are parathyroid imaging tests needed before surgery?
    • Which doctors specialize in treating hyperparathyroidism?
  • Stroke A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain caused by either a blood clot (ischemic) or bleeding...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stroke Article
    • Stroke facts
    • What is a stroke?
    • What are the different types of stroke?
    • What are the warning signs of a stroke?
    • What are the symptoms of a stroke?
    • How is a stroke diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for stroke?
    • What is the prognosis for stroke?
    • Is recovery after a stroke possible?
    • What is stroke rehabilitation?
    • Can strokes be prevented?
  • Metabolic Syndrome The main features of metabolic syndrome include insulin resistance, hypertension (high blood pressure), cholesterol...learn more »
    In This Article
    Metabolic Syndrome Article
    • What is metabolic syndrome?
    • How is metabolic syndrome defined?
    • How common is metabolic syndrome?
    • What causes, and what are the risk factors and symptoms of metabolic syndrome?
    • Why should I know about metabolic syndrome?
    • What is the treatment for metabolic syndrome?
    • Diet and metabolic syndrome
    • Exercise and metabolic syndrome
    • Cosmetic surgery to remove fat
    • What if lifestyle changes are not enough to treat metabolic syndrome?
    • Summary
  • Pheochromocytoma Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal gland. Pheochromocytomas are quite rare and the vast majority of them are entirely...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pheochromocytoma Article
    • Pheochromocytoma facts
    • What is a pheochromocytoma?
    • What are the symptoms of a pheochromocytoma?
    • What conditions are associated with pheochromocytomas?
    • What else can cause the symptoms of a pheochromocytoma?
    • How is pheochromocytoma diagnosis?
    • How is a pheochromocytoma treated?
    • What is the prognosis with a pheochromocytoma?
  • Obesity Obesity is the state of being well above one's normal weight. A person has traditionally been considered to be obese if they are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Obesity Article
    • Obesity facts
    • What is obesity?
    • How common is obesity?
    • What are the health risks associated with obesity?
    • What causes obesity?
    • What are other factors associated with obesity?
    • How is body fat measured?
    • What about weight-for-height tables?
    • What is the body mass index (BMI)?
    • Does it matter where body fat is located?
    • What can be done about obesity?
    • What is the role of physical activity and exercise in obesity?
    • What is the role of diet in the treatment of obesity?
    • What is the role of medication in the treatment of obesity?
    • What about herbal fen/phen?
    • What about meal substitutes, artificial sweeteners, and OTC products?
    • What is the role of surgery in the treatment of obesity?
    • How can patients choose a safe and successful weight-loss program?
  • Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is characterized by numerous cysts in the kidneys. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic...learn more »
    In This Article
    Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) Article
    • Polycystic kidney disease facts*
    • What is polycystic kidney disease?
    • What is autosomal dominant PKD?
    • What are the symptoms of autosomal dominant PKD?
    • How is autosomal dominant PKD diagnosed?
    • How is autosomal dominant PKD treated?
    • What is autosomal recessive PKD?
    • What are the symptoms of autosomal recessive PKD?
    • How is autosomal recessive PKD diagnosed?
    • How is autosomal recessive PKD treated?
    • What is a genetic disease?
    • Hope through research
  • Sleep A number of vital tasks carried out during sleep help maintain good health and enable people to function at their best. Sleep...learn more »
    In This Article
    Sleep Article
    • What is sleep?
    • What are the stages of sleep?
    • How much sleep does a person need?
    • Does the amount of sleep we need change as we age?
    • What are signs and symptoms of sleep deprivation?
    • What are and what causes sleep disorders?
    • How are sleep problems diagnosed?
    • How are sleep problems treated?
    • Sleep hygiene
    • Other therapies
    • Sleep aids (prescription and OTC)
    • Are sleep problems and disease related?
    • How can I get a good night's sleep?
  • Palpitations Palpitations are uncomfortable sensations of the heart beating hard, rapidly, or irregularly. Some types of palpitations are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Palpitations Article
    • What are palpitations?
    • What are the different types of palpitations?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of palpitations?
    • How are palpitations diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for palpitations?
    • What is the prognosis for palpitations?
    • Can palpitations be prevented?
  • Cholesterol High cholesterol and triglyceride levels increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Getting your cholesterol and triglyceride...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cholesterol Article
    • What is cholesterol?
    • What are the different types of cholesterol?
    • Why is high cholesterol dangerous?
    • Where does cholesterol come from?
    • What are normal cholesterol levels?
    • Which foods can help lower cholesterol?
    • What other lifestyle interventions help lower cholesterol?
    • What medications are available to treat high cholesterol?
  • Heart Failure Heart failure is caused by many conditions including coronary artery disease, heart attack, cardiomyopathy, and conditions that...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Failure Article
    • What is Heart Failure?
    • What Causes Heart Failure?
    • What are the Symptoms of Heart Failure?
    • What are the Types of Heart Failure?
    • How is Heart Failure Diagnosed?
    • How is Heart Failure Treated?
    • Stages of Heart Failure
    • How Can I Prevent Heart Failure From Worsening?
    • How Can I Prevent Further Heart Damage?
    • What Medications Should I Avoid?
    • How Can I Improve My Quality of Life?
    • What Surgical Procedures are Used to Treat Heart Failure?
    • Treatment is a Team Effort
    • What is the Outlook for People with Heart Failure?
  • High Blood Pressure Treatment High blood pressure (hypertension) means high pressure (tension) in the arteries. Treatment for high blood pressure include...learn more »
    In This Article
    High Blood Pressure Treatment Article
    • What is high blood pressure (hypertension)?
    • Which lifestyle modifications are beneficial in treating high blood pressure?
    • Alcohol
    • Smoking
    • Coffee and caffeinated beverages
    • Salt
    • Other dietary considerations
    • Obesity
    • Exercise and stress reduction
    • How is high blood pressure treated?
    • Starting treatment for high blood pressure
    • Treatment with combinations of drugs for high blood pressure
    • Emergency treatment for high blood pressure
    • Treatment during pregnancy
    • Which medications are used to treat high blood pressure
    • Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) and angiotensin receptor blockers
    • Beta blockers
    • Diuretics
    • Calcium channel blockers (CCBs)
    • Alpha blockers
    • Clonidine
    • Minoxidil
    • Renin inhibitors
    • Aldosterone blockers
    • Combining agents
    • What about the patient's compliance with medication regimens?
    • Is alternative medicine used to treat high blood pressure?
    • What are the complications of high blood pressure?
    • Can high blood pressure be prevented?
    • What's new in high blood pressure?
  • Snoring Snoring, like all other sounds, is caused by vibrations that cause particles in the air to form sound waves. While we are asleep,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Snoring Article
    • Snoring facts
    • What is snoring?
    • How common is snoring?
    • What are the causes of snoring?
    • How do medications and alcohol affect snoring?
    • Why is snoring a problem?
    • What is the clinical importance of snoring?
    • What are different levels of snoring?
    • How should someone with snoring be evaluated?
    • How is it determined if snoring is a medical problem?
    • What are some objective tests to measure sleepiness?
    • What are the treatments for snoring?
    • What are some non-surgical treatments for snoring?
    • What are the surgical options for snoring?
    • What is the success of surgery for snoring?
  • Aortic Dissection Aortic dissection is a small tear in the large blood vessel that leads from the heart and supplies blood to the body. There are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Aortic Dissection Article
    • Aortic dissection facts
    • Introduction to aortic dissection
    • What are the causes of aortic dissection?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of aortic dissection?
    • How is aortic dissection diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for aortic dissection?
    • What is the prognosis for aortic dissection?
    • Can aortic dissection be prevented?
  • Diabetes and Eye Problems Diabetes and eye problems are generally caused by high blood sugar levels over an extended period of time. Types of eye problems...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diabetes and Eye Problems Article
    • Eye problems and diabetes introduction
    • Cataracts and diabetes
    • Glaucoma and diabetes
    • Diabetic retinopathy
    • Preventing eye problems with diabetes
    • When to contact your doctor about eye problems in diabetes
  • Smell Disorders Reduction of the sense of smell is termed hyposmia. Total inability to detect odors is termed anosmia. Smell disorders have many...learn more »
    In This Article
    Smell Disorders Article
    • smell_disorder_facts
    • How does our sense of smell work?
    • What are the smell disorders?
    • What causes smell disorders?
    • How are smell disorders diagnosed?
    • Are smell disorders serious?
    • Can smell disorders be treated?
    • What research is being done?
    • What can I do to help myself?
  • Turner Syndrome Turner syndrome is an inherited chromosomal condition affecting women. Women with Turner syndrome do not have ovarian function,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Turner Syndrome Article
    • Turner syndrome facts
    • What is Turner syndrome?
    • What are the symptoms of Turner syndrome?
    • How is Turner syndrome diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for Turner syndrome?
    • Is Turner syndrome inherited?
  • Stress Management Techniques Stress may be considered as any physical, chemical, or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental unrest and that may be a...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stress Management Techniques Article
    • Stress-management facts
    • What is stress?
    • Who is most susceptible to stress?
    • What are the symptoms and effects of excess stress or "out-of-control" stress?
    • What can I do to better manage stress?
    • What are some effective stress-management strategies?
    • Exercise
    • Relaxation techniques/meditation
    • Other stress management strategies; time management
    • Organization skills
    • Support systems
    • How can I get help with stress management?
  • Heart Disease (Coronary Artery Disease) Heart disease (coronary artery disease) occurs when plaque builds up in the coronary arteries, the vessels that supply blood to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Disease (Coronary Artery Disease) Article
    • What is heart disease?
    • What are the risk factors for heart disease?
    • What causes heart disease?
    • What are the symptoms of heart disease?
    • How is heart disease diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for heart disease?
    • What is the prognosis for heart disease?
    • Can heart disease be prevented?
  • Genetic Disease Genetic disease is a disorder or condition caused by abnormalities in a person's genome. Types of genetic inheritance include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Genetic Disease Article
    • What is a genetic disease?
    • What are the different types of inheritance?
    • Single gene inheritance
    • Multifactorial inheritance
    • Chromosome abnormalities
    • Mitochondrial inheritance
    • What is the human genome?
  • Hypertensive Kidney Disease High blood pressure can damage the kidneys and is one of the leading causes of kidney failure (end-stage renal kidney disease)....learn more »
    In This Article
    Hypertensive Kidney Disease Article
    • High blood pressure and kidney disease facts*
    • Introduction to high blood pressure (hypertension) and kidney disease
    • What is high blood pressure?
    • How does high blood pressure hurt the kidneys?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of high blood pressure?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of chronic kidney disease? (CKD)?
    • How can kidney damage from high blood pressure be prevented?
    • How can high blood pressure be controlled?
    • Can medicines help control blood pressure?
    • Who is at risk for kidney failure related to high blood pressure?
    • Hope Through Research
  • Renal Artery Stenosis Renal artery stenosis is a narrowing of the diameter of the renal arteries. When the renal arteries narrow, the result is...learn more »
    In This Article
    Renal Artery Stenosis Article
    • Renal artery stenosis facts
    • What are the renal arteries?
    • What is renal artery stenosis?
    • What are the causes of renal artery stenosis?
    • How common is renal artery stenosis?
    • What are the symptoms of renal artery stenosis?
    • What problems does renal artery stenosis cause?
    • Who should be screened for renal artery stenosis?
    • How is renal artery stenosis diagnosed?
    • What are the common imaging tests to evaluate renal artery stenosis?
    • What functional tests are used for the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis?
    • What are medical treatments for renal artery stenosis?
    • What surgical procedures are available for renal artery stenosis?
    • Which patients can benefit from surgical procedures for renal artery stenosis?
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder (In Children and Adults) Autism in children and adults is a developmental disorder, characterized by impaired development in communication, social...learn more »
    In This Article
    Autism Spectrum Disorder (In Children and Adults) Article
    • Autism facts
    • What is autism?
    • How does autism impact the family?
    • What are the different types of autism?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of autism in children and adults?
    • Impairment of social interaction and communication
    • Behaviors
    • What causes autism?
    • Is autism genetic?
    • Do vaccines play a role in autism?
    • How is autism diagnosed in children and adults?
    • How is autism treated in children and adults?
    • What common sociobehavioral interventions are used to treat autism?
    • What are the common medications used to treat the symptoms of autism?
    • Can diet and supplements play a role in the treatment of autism?
    • What is the prognosis for children and adults with autism?
    • For more information about autism in children and adults
  • Smoking (How to Quit Smoking) Smoking is an addiction. More than 430,000 deaths occur each year in the U.S. from smoking related illnesses. Secondhand smoke or...learn more »
    In This Article
    Smoking (How to Quit Smoking) Article
    • Smoking and quitting smoking facts
    • What problems are caused by smoking?
    • What is addictive disease and why is smoking considered an addictive disease?
    • What are the signs of cigarette addiction?
    • Why should someone quit smoking?
    • What are the steps in quitting?
    • Getting ready to quit smoking
    • On the day you quit smoking
    • Staying quit
    • What methods can help a person quit smoking?
    • Behavioral modification and self-help literature to quit smoking
    • Nicotine replacement therapy to quit smoking
    • What prescription products are available for smoking cessation?
    • How are nicotine-containing products used safely?
    • What is in the future for smoking?
  • Neuroblastoma Neuroblastoma is a type of cancer that usually afflicts children under 5 years of age. The cancer forms in the adrenal glands,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Neuroblastoma Article
    • Neuroblastoma facts*
    • What is neuroblastoma?
    • What are symptoms and signs of neuroblastoma?
    • What tests are used in the detection and diagnosis of neuroblastoma?
    • What is the prognosis for neuroblastoma?
    • What are the stages of neuroblastoma?
    • What is the treatment for neuroblastoma?
    • What are treatment options for neuroblastoma?
  • Tumor (Grade) Tumor grade is a system used to classify cancer cells in how likely the tumor is to grow, and how abnormal they look under a...learn more »
    In This Article
    Tumor (Grade) Article
    • Tumor grade facts
    • What is a tumor?
    • What is tumor grade?
    • How is tumor grade determined?
    • What do the different tumor grades signify?
    • Does the same grading scale apply to all tumors?
    • Does tumor grade affect a patient's treatment options?
  • Diabetes and Kidney Disease In the United States diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure. High blood pressure and high levels of blood glucose...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diabetes and Kidney Disease Article
    • Kidney Disease of Diabetes Facts*
    • The Burden of Kidney Failure
    • The Course of Kidney Disease
    • Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease
    • Effects of High Blood Pressure
    • Preventing and Slowing Kidney Disease
    • Dialysis and Transplantation
    • Good Care Makes a Difference
    • Points to Remember
    • Hope through Research
    • For More Information
  • Congenital Heart Defects Congenital heart defects are heart problems that are present at birth. Genetics may play a role in some heart defects. Symptoms...learn more »
    In This Article
    Congenital Heart Defects Article
    • Congenital heart defects facts
    • What are congenital heart defects?
    • How the heart works
    • What are the types of congenital heart defects?
    • What are other names for congenital heart defects?
    • What causes congenital heart defects?
    • What are the signs and symptoms and signs of congenital heart defects?
    • How are congential heart defects diagnosed??
    • How are congenital heart defects treated?
    • Living with a congenital heart defect
  • Heart Attacks in Women Heart disease, particularly coronary artery disease is the leading cause of heart attacks. Women are more likely to die from a...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attacks in Women Article
    • One woman's heart attack story
    • What is heart disease?
    • Do women need to worry about heart disease?
    • Do women of color need to worry about heart disease?
    • What can I do to prevent heart disease?
    • What does high blood pressure have to do with heart disease?
    • How can I lower my blood pressure?
    • What does high cholesterol have to do with heart disease?
    • What do my cholesterol and triglyceride numbers mean?
    • How can I lower my cholesterol?
    • How do I know if I have heart disease?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a heart attack?
    • One of my family members had a heart attack. Does that mean I'll have one too?
    • Sometimes my heart beats really fast and other times it feels like my heart skips a beat. Am I having a heart attack?
    • Should I take a daily aspirin to prevent heart attack?
    • Does taking birth control pills increase my risk for heart disease?
    • Does using the birth control patch increase my risk for heart disease?
    • Does menopausal hormone therapy (HT, HRT, ET) increase a woman's risk for heart disease?
    • For more information on heart disease in women
  • Prevention Enjoying a healthy diet helps to prevent diseases. A good diet also helps to control celiac disease, diabetes, and high blood...learn more »
    In This Article
    Prevention Article
    • Maintaining health
    • Preventing and controlling diseases
    • Vitamins and minerals to maintain health
    • Vitamin supplements to prevent diseases
    • Diets to control and/or treat diseases
  • Cocaine and Crack Abuse Cocaine is an addictive stimulant that is smoked, snorted, and injected. Crack is cocaine that comes in a rock crystal that is...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cocaine and Crack Abuse Article
    • Cocaine and crack abuse facts
    • What is cocaine? What is crack?
    • How is cocaine abused?
    • What are cocaine's effects on the body and the mind?
    • What causes and prevents cocaine abuse and addiction?
    • What are symptoms and signs of cocaine abuse and addiction?
    • How is cocaine addiction diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for cocaine and crack addiction?
    • What are symptoms and signs of cocaine withdrawal?
    • What are the long-term effects and the prognosis for cocaine and crack addiction?
    • Where can people find more information about cocaine and crack abuse?
  • Arteriovenous Malformation Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a congenital disorder of blood vessels in the brain, brainstem, or spinal cord that is...learn more »
    In This Article
    Arteriovenous Malformation Article
    • What are arteriovenous malformations?
    • What are the symptoms of arteriovenous malformations?
    • How do arteriovenous malformations damage the brain and spinal cord?
    • Where do neurological arteriovenous malformations tend to form?
    • What are the health consequences of arteriovenous malformations?
    • What other types of vascular lesions affect the central nervous system?
    • What causes vascular lesions?
    • How are arteriovenous malformations and other vascular lesions detected?
    • How can arteriovenous malformations and other vascular lesions be treated?
    • What research is being done?
  • Heart Attack Treatment A heart attack involves damage or death of part of the heart muscle due to a blood clot. The aim of heart attack treatment is to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attack Treatment Article
    • What is a heart attack?
    • How is a heart attack treated?
    • Antiplatelet agents
    • Aspirin
    • Thienopyridines
    • Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors
    • Anticoagulants
    • Clot-dissolving drugs
    • Coronary angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
    • Coronary artery stents
    • Nitrates
    • Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
    • Beta blockers
    • Oxygen
    • Coronary artery bypass
    • What can a patient expect during recovery from a heart attack?
    • How can a second heart attack be prevented?
  • Vascular Disease Vascular disease includes any condition that affects your circulatory system. Vascular disease ranges from diseases of your...learn more »
    In This Article
    Vascular Disease Article
    • Peripheral artery disease
    • Aneurysm
    • Renal (kidney) artery disease
    • Raynaud's Phenomenon
    • Buerger's Disease
    • Peripheral venous disease
    • Varicose veins
    • Blood clots in the veins
    • Blood clotting disorders
    • Lymphedema
  • Bath Salts Ingredients of the drug bath salts include mephedrone, methylone, MDPV, or MDPK. Feeling high and sexually stimulated are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bath Salts Article
    • Bath salts facts
    • What are bath salts, and how are bath salts abused?
    • What is the history of bath salts?
    • Are bath salts addictive?
    • Are bath salts legal?
    • What are risk and protective (prevention) factors for bath salts abuse and addiction?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of bath salts intoxication?
    • What are the side effects, complications, and prognosis of abusing bath salts?
    • How is bath salts abuse and addiction diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for bath salts abuse and addiction?
    • Where can people find more information about bath salts abuse and addiction?
  • Fitness Regular physical activity can reduce the risk of disease. Regular exercise can also reduce the symptoms of stress and anxiety....learn more »
    In This Article
    Fitness Article
    • The importance of physical activity and fitness
    • Why should I be active?
    • Can everyone benefit from physical activity?
    • What are the recommendations for increasing fitness for youth, adults, and seniors?
    • How do I get started with a fitness plan?
    • When is a medical evaluation necessary?
    • How can I make physical activity a part of my life?
    • What are the components of physical fitness?
    • Fitness terms
  • Kidney Dysplasia Kidney dysplasia is a condition in which one or both of a baby's kidneys do not develop normally. In kidney dysplasia, cysts...learn more »
    In This Article
    Kidney Dysplasia Article
    • What is kidney dysplasia?
    • How does kidney dysplasia happen?
    • What causes kidney dysplasia?
    • What are the signs or complications of kidney dysplasia?
    • How is kidney dysplasia diagnosed?
    • How is kidney dysplasia treated?
    • What is the long-term outlook for a child with kidney dysplasia?
    • Questions to ask the doctor
    • Points to remember
  • Heart Attack Pathology: Photo Essay A heart attack is a layperson's term for a sudden blockage of a coronary artery. This photo essay inlcudes graphics, pictures,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attack Pathology: Photo Essay Article
    • What is a Heart Attack?
    • What are the structures and functions of a normal coronary artery?
    • What happens to the coronary artery in atherosclerosis?
    • Who gets coronary artery plaques and what happens to the plaques?
    • What happens to the heart muscle after a person survives a Heart Attack?
    • Can a person have more than one Heart Attack?
  • Heart Attack Prevention Overview Heart attacks are the major causes of unexpected, sudden death among men and women. A heart attack is also a significant cause of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attack Prevention Overview Article
    • Introduction
    • What is atherosclerosis?
    • What are coronary heart diseases (CHD)?
    • What is angina pectoris?
    • What is a heart attack?
    • Ventricular fibrillation
    • Heart failure
    • What is cerebral vascular disease?
    • Ischemic stroke
    • Hemorrhagic stroke
    • Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
    • When does the coronary atherosclerosis process begin?
    • Have most people done enough to prevent atherosclerosis and heart attacks?
    • What are the risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis and heart disease?
    • How can coronary atherosclerosis and heart attacks be prevented?
  • Stroke Prevention Stroke is the third leading killer in the United States. Some of the warning signs of stroke include sudden confusion, trouble...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stroke Prevention Article
    • Introduction
    • What is a Stroke?
    • What are Warning Signs of a Stroke?
    • What are Risk Factors for a Stroke?
    • What Are the Treatable Risk Factors?
    • Do You Know Your Stroke Risk?
  • Club Drugs Ecstasy (MDMA), Rohypnol, ketamine and GHB are a few of the different types of drugs abused at bars, raves and parties. Rohypnol...learn more »
    In This Article
    Club Drugs Article
    • How are club drugs abused?
    • How do club drugs affect the body?
    • Are club drugs addictive?
    • What other adverse effects do club drugs have on health?
    • What treatment options exist for those who abuse or are dependent upon club drugs?
    • How widespread is club drug abuse?
    • Where can people find more information about club drugs?
  • Disease Prevention in Women Disease prevention in women includes screening tests that are a basic part of prevention medicine. All screening tests are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Disease Prevention in Women Article
    • Disease prevention in women overview
    • Osteoporosis
    • Breast cancer
    • High blood pressure (hypertension)
    • Cancer of the cervix
    • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    • Hypercholesterolemia (hyperlipidemia, dyslipidemia)
    • Type II diabetes mellitus
    • Cancer of colon and rectum / polyps of colon and rectum
    • Bladder cancer
    • Glaucoma
    • Melanoma and other skin cancers
  • Disease Prevention in Men Disease prevention in men includes routine screening tests that are part of basic prevention medicine. Take an active role in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Disease Prevention in Men Article
    • Disease prevention in men introduction
    • High blood pressure (hypertension)
    • Hypercholesterolemia (hyperlipidemia, dyslipidemia)
    • Type II diabetes mellitus
    • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    • Cancer of colon and rectum /polyps of colon and rectum
    • Prostate cancer
    • Glaucoma
    • Melanoma and other skin cancers
    • Bladder cancer
  • Smoking and Heart Disease Smoking increases the risk of heart disease in women and men. Nicotine in cigarettes decrease oxygen to the heart, increases...learn more »
    In This Article
    Smoking and Heart Disease Article
    • Smoking and heart disease introduction
    • How does smoking increase heart disease risk?
    • How can quitting smoking be helpful?
    • How to quit smoking
    • What should I do first to stop smoking?
    • How can I avoid smoking again?
    • How will I feel when I quit smoking?

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