Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) facts
- Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacterium that causes chronic inflammation in the stomach and is a common cause of ulcers worldwide.
- H. pylori causes chronic inflammation (gastritis) by invading the lining of the stomach and producing a cytotoxin termed vacuolating cytotoxin A (Vac-A), and thus can lead to ulcer formation.
- Although many infected individuals have no symptoms, other infected individuals may have occasional episodes of:
- More serious infections cause symptoms of:
- H. pylori is contagious; however some individuals may be simply have the bacteria in their gut, and the bacteria causes no symptoms of disease.
- The diagnosis of H. pylori infection includes tests for antibodies in blood, urea breath tests, tests for antigens in stool, and endoscopic biopsies.
- Chronic infections with H. pylori weakens the natural defenses of the stomach so most individuals with symptoms need to be treated to prevent ulceration formation.
- H. pylori can be difficult to eradicate from the stomach because of antibiotic resistance; consequently, two or more antibiotics are usually given together with a protein pump inhibitor (PPI) medication (for example, omeprazole [Prilosec, Zegerid] or esomeprazole [Nexium])
- In general, patients should be treated if they are infected with H. pylori and have ulcers. Moreover, patients who develop MALT lymphoma (a type of cancer) of the stomach have the lymphoma progress if H. pylori is not treated and eradicated.
- Because about 50% of the world's population carries or is infected with H. pylori, treatment and prevention of side effects and complications is difficult; however, recommendations to help prevent ulcers include:
- Good hand washing techniques with uncontaminated water will reduce chances of infection.
- Currently, no vaccine is available against H. pylori to prevent either colonization or infection.
- The prognosis for H. pylori infections is usually good to excellent, but up to 20% of affected individuals may have reoccurring infection. Untreated and more severe infections have a worse prognosis because of the potential for bleeding, anemia, and low blood pressure (hypotension). Continue Reading
Reviewed on 10/20/2015