Heart Valve Disease Treatment Center - Rosemead, CA

Rosemead Cardiologist Doctors for Heart Valve Disease Treatment

Type of Physician: Cardiologist

What is a Cardiologist?

A subspecialty certification by the Board of Internal Medicine. Practitioners are expert in diseases of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels. They consult with surgeons on heart surgery, perform diagnostic procedures, and manage complex conditions such as heart attacks and arrhythmias (abnormal heartbeat).

Specialty: Cardiovascular Disease

Common Name: Heart Doctor

Cardiologist Doctors in Rosemead *

James H Liu MD Inc
James H Liu
1730 S San Gabriel Blvd Ste C
San Gabriel, CA 91776
(626) 280-2417

Yeh & Wang MDs
Tom P Yeh
7837 Garvey Ave
Rosemead, CA 91770
(626) 572-3100

Southern California Heart Ctr
Yin J Kok
506 W Valley Blvd Ste 100
San Gabriel, CA 91776
(626) 308-3800

Southern California Heart Ctr
Lisa Lam
506 W Valley Blvd Ste 100
San Gabriel, CA 91776
(626) 308-3800

Southern California Heart Ctr
Stanley K Lau
506 W Valley Blvd Ste 100
San Gabriel, CA 91776
(626) 308-3800

Ngoc T Nguyen MD
Ngoc T Nguyen
10362 Garvey Ave
El Monte, CA 91733
(626) 350-1555

Soon Y Kwun MD
Soon Y Kwun
3131 Santa Anita Ave Ste 105
El Monte, CA 91733
(626) 442-2151

Kelvin T Yee MD
Kelvin T Yee
559 W Las Tunas Dr
San Gabriel, CA 91776
(626) 457-9618

El Monte Comprehensive Hlth Ctr
Stanley S Leong
10953 Ramona Blvd
El Monte, CA 91731
(626) 579-8308

John J Tzeng MD
John J Tzeng
736 S Garfield Ave Ste B
Alhambra, CA 91801
(626) 281-0501

Greg S Yen MD
Greg S Yen
1522 S Garfield Ave Ste A
Alhambra, CA 91801
(626) 576-8500

Stephen K Kwan MD
Stephen K Kwan
600 N Garfield Ave Ste 309
Monterey Park, CA 91754
(626) 288-5666

Jorge A Pena MD
Jorge A Pena
600 N Garfield Ave Ste 311
Monterey Park, CA 91754
(626) 280-0408

Diagnostic Heart Center
Taqui M Ali
624 W Duarte Rd Ste 207
Arcadia, CA 91007
(626) 446-5800

Diagnostic Heart Center
Mir B Ali
624 W Duarte Rd Ste 207
Arcadia, CA 91007
(626) 446-5800

Comprehensive Crdvsclr Specs
Clement S Chan
220 S 1st St
Alhambra, CA 91801
(626) 281-8663

Comprehensive Crdvsclr Specs
Peter K Fung
220 S 1st St
Alhambra, CA 91801
(626) 281-8663

Comprehensive Crdvsclr Specs
Rex Liu
220 S 1st St
Alhambra, CA 91801
(626) 281-8663

Comprehensive Crdvsclr Specs
Xiushi S Liu
220 S 1st St
Alhambra, CA 91801
(626) 281-8663

Chin S Shih MD
Chin Shun Shih
223 N Garfield Ave Ste 305
Monterey Park, CA 91754
(626) 573-1941

Comprehensive Crdvsclr Specs
Michael W Yeh
220 S 1st St
Alhambra, CA 91801
(626) 281-8663

Long Life
Thein Htay
35 S Garfield Ave
Alhambra, CA 91801
(626) 458-8818

Garvey Medical Center
Siu W Wong
201 W Garvey Ave Ste 108
Monterey Park, CA 91754
(626) 573-2188

Long Life
Henry C Yee
35 S Garfield Ave
Alhambra, CA 91801
(626) 458-8818

Foothill Crdlgy CA Hrt Med Grp
Terrence J Baruch
301 W Huntington Dr Ste 301
Arcadia, CA 91007
(626) 254-0074

Foothill Crdlgy CA Hrt Med Grp
Enrique S Blesa
301 W Huntington Dr Ste 301
Arcadia, CA 91007
(626) 254-0074

Foothill Crdlgy CA Hrt Med Grp
Amy Chao
301 W Huntington Dr Ste 301
Arcadia, CA 91007
(626) 254-0074

Foothill Crdlgy CA Hrt Med Grp
Gary L Conrad
301 W Huntington Dr Ste 301
Arcadia, CA 91007
(626) 254-0074

Foothill Crdlgy CA Hrt Med Grp
Jaime O Henriquez
301 W Huntington Dr Ste 301
Arcadia, CA 91007
(626) 254-0074

Foothill Crdlgy CA Hrt Med Grp
Tara M Hughes
301 W Huntington Dr Ste 301
Arcadia, CA 91007
(626) 254-0074

Southern California Heart Specs
Richard H Onysko
301 W Huntington Dr Ste 500
Arcadia, CA 91007
(626) 294-4888

Southern California Heart Specs
Stephen J Soldo
301 W Huntington Dr Ste 500
Arcadia, CA 91007
(626) 294-4888

Southern California Heart Specs
Babak Tashakkor
301 W Huntington Dr Ste 500
Arcadia, CA 91007
(626) 294-4888

Southern California Heart Specs
Karl-Heinrich H Vogelbach
301 W Huntington Dr Ste 500
Arcadia, CA 91007
(626) 294-4888

Southern California Heart Specs
Douglas D Yun
301 W Huntington Dr Ste 500
Arcadia, CA 91007
(626) 294-4888

California Cardiovascular Care
Christakis Christodoulou
3235 E Colorado Blvd Ste 201
Pasadena, CA 91107
(626) 577-7050

Healthcare Partners Medical Grp
Richard Hart
880 S Atlantic Blvd Ste 101
Monterey Park, CA 91754
(626) 281-6969

California Cardiovascular Care
Narveen Sharma
3235 E Colorado Blvd Ste 201
Pasadena, CA 91107
(626) 577-7050

Cardiovascular Consultants
Rajesh Chawla
900 S 1st Ave Ste C
Arcadia, CA 91006
(626) 566-2750

Monterey Park Hospital Cardlgy
Jose B Farinha
900 S Atlantic Blvd
Monterey Park, CA 91754
(626) 570-5780

Govindarajan & Govindarajan MDs
Gopal Govindarajan
101 E Beverly Blvd Ste 302
Montebello, CA 90640
(323) 728-8181

Comprehensive Cardiovsclr Specs
Phillip R Harding
101 E Beverly Blvd Ste 103
Montebello, CA 90640
(323) 728-0655

Cardiovascular Consultants
Lee S Herman
900 S 1st Ave Ste C
Arcadia, CA 91006
(626) 566-2750

Iftikhar A Khan MD
Iftikhar A Khan
101 E Beverly Blvd Ste 406
Montebello, CA 90640
(323) 725-3099

Comprehensive Cardiovsclr Specs
Joan R Orlando
101 E Beverly Blvd Ste 103
Montebello, CA 90640
(323) 728-0655

Comprehensive Cardiovsclr Specs
Keith N Yabumoto
101 E Beverly Blvd Ste 103
Montebello, CA 90640
(323) 728-0655

Caremore Care Center
William K Halliday
433 N 4th St Ste 208
Montebello, CA 90640
(323) 201-4130

Bao B Yang MD
Bao B Yang
149 N 6th St
Montebello, CA 90640
(323) 721-5121

Senior Healthcare Clinic
Kamlesh T Dhawan
3420 W Beverly Blvd
Montebello, CA 90640
(323) 721-9411

Jose B Farinha MD PC
Sandra S Eta
3328 W Beverly Blvd
Montebello, CA 90640
(323) 726-0602

Iduama B Kelly-Dokubo MD
Iduama B Kelly-Dokubo
2750 E Washington Blvd Ste 370
Pasadena, CA 91107
(626) 296-0792

Janga A Reddy MD
Janga A Reddy
284 S Atlantic Blvd
Los Angeles, CA 90022
(323) 264-4004

Yasmeen S Ruhge MD
Yasmeen S Ruhge
50 Alessandro Pl Ste 300
Pasadena, CA 91105
(626) 397-9097

Cardiology Care Of The Heart
Milton P Smith
630 S Raymond Ave Unit 204
Pasadena, CA 91105
(626) 340-4888

Foothill Cardiology
Azhil Durairaj
625 S Fair Oaks Ave Ste 215
Pasadena, CA 91105
(626) 793-4139

Southern California Heart Specs
John L Easthope
55 E California Blvd Fl 3
Pasadena, CA 91105
(626) 793-1396

Southern California Heart Specs
Walter A Edmiston
55 E California Blvd Fl 3
Pasadena, CA 91105
(626) 793-1396

Southern California Heart Specs
Gregory M Giesler
55 E California Blvd Fl 3
Pasadena, CA 91105
(626) 793-1396

Southern California Heart Specs
Joel W Heger
55 E California Blvd Fl 3
Pasadena, CA 91105
(626) 793-1396

Southern California Heart Specs
Annie Huang
55 E California Blvd Fl 3
Pasadena, CA 91105
(626) 793-1396

Foothill Cardiology
Caroline Lalonde
625 S Fair Oaks Ave Ste 215
Pasadena, CA 91105
(626) 793-4139

Southern California Heart Specs
Michael Q Luu
55 E California Blvd Fl 3
Pasadena, CA 91105
(626) 793-1396

Southern California Heart Specs
Paul D Maher
55 E California Blvd Fl 3
Pasadena, CA 91105
(626) 793-1396

Southern California Heart Specs
Mark R Myers
55 E California Blvd Fl 3
Pasadena, CA 91105
(626) 793-1396

Foothill Cardiology
Vyshali S Rao
625 S Fair Oaks Ave Ste 215
Pasadena, CA 91105
(626) 793-4139

Foothill Cardiology
Mayer Y Rashtian
625 S Fair Oaks Ave Ste 215
Pasadena, CA 91105
(626) 793-4139

Foothill Cardiology
Raul F Roth
625 S Fair Oaks Ave Ste 215
Pasadena, CA 91105
(626) 793-4139

Foothill Cardiology
Shumin K Zhen
625 S Fair Oaks Ave Ste 215
Pasadena, CA 91105
(626) 793-4139

Kaiser Permanente Medical Group
Kevin C Chang
1011 Baldwin Park Blvd
Baldwin Park, CA 91706
(626) 851-1011

Kaiser Permanente Medical Group
Timothy M Cotter
1011 Baldwin Park Blvd
Baldwin Park, CA 91706
(626) 851-1011

Kaiser Permanente Medical Group
Sarah R De Guzman
1011 Baldwin Park Blvd
Baldwin Park, CA 91706
(626) 851-1011

Kaiser Permanente Medical Group
Previn J De Silva
1011 Baldwin Park Blvd
Baldwin Park, CA 91706
(626) 851-1011

Kaiser Permanente Medical Group
Godofredo R Gutierrez
1011 Baldwin Park Blvd
Baldwin Park, CA 91706
(626) 851-1011

Kaiser Permanente Medical Group
Martha I Mercado
1011 Baldwin Park Blvd
Baldwin Park, CA 91706
(626) 851-1011

Kaiser Permanente Medical Group
Rasoul Mokabberi
1011 Baldwin Park Blvd
Baldwin Park, CA 91706
(626) 851-1011

Kaiser Permanente Medical Group
Mark T Speakman
1011 Baldwin Park Blvd
Baldwin Park, CA 91706
(626) 851-1011

Kaiser Permanente Medical Group
Thomas To
1011 Baldwin Park Blvd
Baldwin Park, CA 91706
(626) 851-1011

Kaiser Permanente Medical Group
Pauline Woo
1011 Baldwin Park Blvd
Baldwin Park, CA 91706
(626) 851-1011

Juan A Almaguer MD
Juan A Almaguer
4525 E Cesar E Chavez Ave
Los Angeles, CA 90022
(323) 262-9249

Bright Health Physicians
Aditya P Ambegaonkar
12462 Putnam St Ste 203
Whittier, CA 90602
(562) 789-5430

Bright Health Physicians
Gerald E Beckham
12462 Putnam St Ste 203
Whittier, CA 90602
(562) 789-5430

Johnny S Gaw MD
Johnny S Gaw
931 Buena Vista St Ste 106
Duarte, CA 91010
(626) 359-8929

Bright Health Physicians
Sudhaker H Nayak
12462 Putnam St Ste 203
Whittier, CA 90602
(562) 789-5430

Kartik Thaker MD
Kartik B Thaker
12291 Washington Blvd Ste 450
Whittier, CA 90606
(562) 698-7599

Ueki & Parks Mds
Richard L Parks
12486 Washington Blvd
Whittier, CA 90602
(562) 693-0756

Heart Wise Fitness Longevity
Howard K Elkin
8038 Painter Ave
Whittier, CA 90602
(562) 945-3753

Caremore Medical Group
Jack E Dobkin
9040 Telegraph Rd Ste 100
Downey, CA 90240
(562) 861-0954

Caremore Medical Group
Gary E Marsh
9040 Telegraph Rd Ste 100
Downey, CA 90240
(562) 861-0954

USC University Hospital Cardlgy
Michael Cao
1520 San Pablo St Ste 1000
Los Angeles, CA 90033
(323) 442-6130

USC University Hospital Cardlgy
Philip Chang
1520 San Pablo St Ste 1000
Los Angeles, CA 90033
(323) 442-6130

USC University Hospital Cardlgy
Leonardo C Clavijo
1520 San Pablo St Ste 1000
Los Angeles, CA 90033
(323) 442-6130

USC University Hospital Cardlgy
Nirav N Desai
1520 San Pablo St Ste 1000
Los Angeles, CA 90033
(323) 442-6130

USC University Hospital Cardlgy
Uri Elkayam
1520 San Pablo St Ste 1000
Los Angeles, CA 90033
(323) 442-6130

USC University Hospital Cardlgy
Michael Fong
1520 San Pablo St Ste 1000
Los Angeles, CA 90033
(323) 442-6130

USC Healthcare Internal Medcn
Luanda Grazette
1520 San Pablo St Ste 1000
Los Angeles, CA 90033
(323) 442-5100

Keck Hospital Of USC Cardiology
Antreas Hindoyan
1500 San Pablo St Ste 1000
Los Angeles, CA 90033
(323) 442-5100

USC University Hospital Cardlgy
Howard N Hodis
1520 San Pablo St Ste 1000
Los Angeles, CA 90033
(323) 442-6130

USC Healthcare Internal Medcn
Henry Huang
1520 San Pablo St Ste 1000
Los Angeles, CA 90033
(323) 442-5100

USC University Hospital Cardlgy
Tracy Lawrence
1520 San Pablo St Ste 1000
Los Angeles, CA 90033
(323) 442-6130

USC University Hospital Cardlgy
Ray V Matthews
1520 San Pablo St Ste 1000
Los Angeles, CA 90033
(323) 442-6130

Rosemead, California

Heart Valve Disease Surgery

Introduction to Heart Valve Surgery

Diseased heart valves can be treated both surgically (traditional heart valve surgery) and non-surgically (balloon valvuloplasty).

What Happens During Traditional Heart Valve Sur...

Emergency Contact for Rosemead

  • In case of Emergency, call 911

Nearby Rosemead Hospitals *

BHC Alhambra Hospital
4619 Rosemead Blvd
Rosemead, CA 91770
(626)286-1191

Silver Lake Medical Center
7500 Hellman Ave
Rosemead, CA 91770
(626)288-1160

San Gabriel Valley Medical Ctr
438 W Las Tunas Dr
San Gabriel, CA 91776
(626)289-5454

Garfield Medical Center
525 N Garfield Ave
Monterey Park, CA 91754
(626)573-2222

Greater El Monte Community Hosp
1701 Santa Anita Ave
South El Monte, CA 91733
(626)579-7777

Alhambra Hospital Medical Ctr
100 S Raymond Ave
Alhambra, CA 91801
(626)570-1606

Monterey Park Hospital
900 S Atlantic Blvd
Monterey Park, CA 91754
(626)570-9000

Methodist Hospital Southern CA
300 W Huntington Dr
Arcadia, CA 91007
(626)445-4441

Aurora Las Encinas Hospital
2900 E Del Mar Blvd
Pasadena, CA 91107
(800)792-2345

Beverly Hospital
309 W Beverly Blvd
Montebello, CA 90640
(323)726-1222

Kaiser Permanente Medical Ctr
1011 Baldwin Park Blvd
Baldwin Park, CA 91706
(626)851-1011

Huntington Memorial Hospital
100 W California Blvd
Pasadena, CA 91105
(626)397-5000

City Of Hope National Med Ctr
1500 Duarte Rd
Duarte, CA 91010
(626)359-8111

East Los Angeles Doctors Hosp
4060 Whittier Blvd
Los Angeles, CA 90023
(323)268-5514

Keck Hospital Of USC
1500 San Pablo St
Los Angeles, CA 90033
(323)442-8500

Los Angeles Community Hospital
4081 E Olympic Blvd
Los Angeles, CA 90023
(323)267-0477

USC Kenneth Norris Cancer Ctr
1441 Eastlake Ave
Los Angeles, CA 90089
(323)865-3000

Citrus Valley Medical Center
1115 S Sunset Ave
West Covina, CA 91790
(626)962-4011

Doctors Hospital Of West Covina
725 S Orange Ave
West Covina, CA 91790
(626)338-8481

Impact Drug & Alcohol Treatment
1680 N Fair Oaks Ave
Pasadena, CA 91103
(626)798-0884

LAC USC Medical Center
1200 N State St
Los Angeles, CA 90033
(323)226-2622

Presbyterian Intercommunity
12401 Washington Blvd
Whittier, CA 90602
(562)698-0811

Promise Hospital
443 S Soto St
Los Angeles, CA 90033
(323)261-1181

White Memorial Medical Center
1720 E Cesar E Chavez Ave
Los Angeles, CA 90033
(323)268-5000

Los Angeles Sheriff's Dept Med
450 Bauchet St
Los Angeles, CA 90012
(213)893-5460

Kindred Hospital
845 N Lark Ellen Ave
West Covina, CA 91791
(626)339-5451

Pacific Alliance Medical Center
531 W College St
Los Angeles, CA 90012
(213)624-8411

Whittier Hospital & Medical Ctr
9080 Colima Rd
Whittier, CA 90605
(562)945-3561

Kaiser Mental Health Center
765 W College St
Los Angeles, CA 90012
(213)580-7200

Barlow Respiratory Hospital
2000 Stadium Way
Los Angeles, CA 90026
(213)250-4200

Glendale Adventist Medical Ctr
1509 Wilson Ter
Glendale, CA 91206
(818)409-8000

Gateways Hsptl & Mntl Hlth
1891 Effie St
Los Angeles, CA 90026
(323)644-2000

Citrus Valley Medical Center
210 W San Bernardino Rd
Covina, CA 91723
(626)331-7331

Community Hospital Huntngtn Prk
2623 E Slauson Ave
Huntington Park, CA 90255
(323)583-1931

Downey Regional Medical Center
11500 Brookshire Ave
Downey, CA 90241
(562)904-5000

Metropolitan State Hospital
11401 Bloomfield Ave
Norwalk, CA 90650
(562)863-7011

Silver Lake Medical Center
1711 W Temple St
Los Angeles, CA 90026
(213)989-6100

Glendale Memorial Hospital
1420 S Central Ave
Glendale, CA 91204
(818)502-1900

Good Samaritan Hospital
616 Witmer St
Los Angeles, CA 90017
(213)977-2121

California Hospital Medical Ctr
1401 S Grand Ave
Los Angeles, CA 90015
(213)748-2411

St Vincent Medical Center
2131 W 3rd St
Los Angeles, CA 90057
(213)484-7111

Rancho Los Amigos Hospital
7601 Imperial Hwy
Downey, CA 90242
(562)401-7111

Coast Plaza Hospital
13100 Studebaker Rd
Norwalk, CA 90650
(562)868-3751

Kaiser Permanente Medical Ctr
9333 Imperial Hwy
Downey, CA 90242
(562)657-9000

Verdugo Hills Hospital
1812 Verdugo Blvd
Glendale, CA 91208
(818)790-7100

Norwalk Community Hospital
13222 Bloomfield Ave
Norwalk, CA 90650
(562)863-4763

Temple Community Hospital
235 N Hoover St
Los Angeles, CA 90004
(213)382-7252

Aurora Charter Oak Hospital
1161 E Covina Blvd
Covina, CA 91724
(626)966-1632

Kedren Community Mental Health
4211 Avalon Blvd
Los Angeles, CA 90011
(323)233-0425

Kindred Hospital La Mirada
14900 Imperial Hwy
La Mirada, CA 90638
(562)944-1900

East Valley Hospital Med Ctr
150 W Route 66
Glendora, CA 91740
(626)335-0231

Shriners Hospital For Children
3160 Geneva St
Los Angeles, CA 90020
(213)388-3151

Foothill Presbyterian Hospital
250 S Grand Ave
Glendora, CA 91741
(626)963-8411

Childrens Hospitals Los Angeles
4650 W Sunset Blvd
Los Angeles, CA 90027
(323)660-2450

Hollywood Presbyterian Med Ctr
1300 N Vermont Ave
Los Angeles, CA 90027
(213)413-3000

Kaiser Permnte Ls Angls Med Ctr
4867 W Sunset Blvd
Los Angeles, CA 90027
(323)783-4011

St Francis Medical Center
3630 E Imperial Hwy
Lynwood, CA 90262
(310)900-8900

College Hospital Cerritos
10802 College Pl
Cerritos, CA 90703
(562)924-9581

Lapaz At Paramount
8835 Vans St
Paramount, CA 90723
(562)633-5111

Los Angeles Metropolitan Med
2231 S Western Ave
Los Angeles, CA 90018
(323)730-7300

San Dimas Community Hospital
1350 W Covina Blvd
San Dimas, CA 91773
(909)599-6811

Hollywood Community Hospital
6245 De Longpre Ave
Los Angeles, CA 90028
(323)462-2271

Promise Hospital Of East LA
16453 Colorado Ave
Paramount, CA 90723
(562)531-3110

Bellflower Medical Center
9542 Artesia Blvd
Bellflower, CA 90706
(562)925-8355

Kindred Hospital-Brea
875 N Brea Blvd
Brea, CA 92821
(714)529-6842

Anaheim General Hospital
5742 Beach Blvd
Buena Park, CA 90621
(714)367-5800

Providence Saint Josph Med Ctr
501 S Buena Vista St
Burbank, CA 91505
(818)843-5111

Lanterman Developmental Center
3530 Pomona Blvd
Pomona, CA 91768
(909)595-1221

St Jude Medical Center
101 E Valencia Mesa Dr
Fullerton, CA 92835
(714)871-3280

Lakewood Regional Medical Ctr
3700 South St
Lakewood, CA 90712
(562)531-2550

La Casa Mental Health Center
6060 N Paramount Blvd
Long Beach, CA 90805
(562)634-9534

La Palma Intercommunity Hosp
7901 Walker St
La Palma, CA 90623
(714)670-7400

Guardian Rehabilitation Hosp
533 S Fairfax Ave
Los Angeles, CA 90036
(323)930-4815

Olympia Medical Center
5900 W Olympic Blvd
Los Angeles, CA 90036
(323)938-3161

Miracle Mile Medical Center
6000 San Vicente Blvd
Los Angeles, CA 90036
(323)930-1040

*Provider Directory Terms of Use:

The WebMD 'Provider Directory' is provided by WebMD for use by the general public as a quick reference of information about Providers. The Provider Directory is not intended as a tool for verifying the credentials, qualifications, or abilities of any Provider contained therein. Inclusion in the Provider Directory does not imply recommendation or endorsement nor does omission in the Provider Directory imply WebMD disapproval.

You are prohibited from using, downloading, republishing, selling, duplicating, or "scraping" for commercial or any other purpose whatsoever, the Provider Directory or any of the data listings or other information contained therein, in whole or in part, in any medium whatsoever.

The Provider Directory is provided on an "AS-IS" basis. WebMD disclaims all warranties, either express or implied, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for particular purpose. Without limiting the foregoing, WebMD does not warrant or represent that the Provider Directory or any part thereof is accurate or complete. You assume full responsibility for the communications with any Provider you contact through the Provider Directory. WebMD shall in no event be liable to you or to anyone for any decision made or action taken by you in the reliance on information provided in the Provider Directory.

The use of WebMD Provider Directory by any entity or individual to verify the credentials of Providers is prohibited. The database of Provider information which drives WebMD Provider Directory does not contain sufficient information with which to verify Provider credentials under the standards of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) of the Utilization Review Accreditation Committee (URAC).

By using the WebMD Provider Directory, you agree to these Terms and Conditions.