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- What is cardiovascular disease?
- What are the risk factors for cardiovascular disease?
- What causes cardiovascular disease?
- What are the symptoms of cardiovascular?
- How is cardiovascular disease diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for cardiovascular disease?
- What is the prognosis for cardiovascular disease?
- Can cardiovascular disease be prevented?
Quick GuideHeart Disease: Symptoms, Signs, and Causes
What is the prognosis for cardiovascular disease?
An estimated 15.5 million patients in the United States have coronary artery disease. Each year, 1.5 million patients suffer an acute myocardial infarction and almost 600,000 people die.
With better understanding of the different presentations of heart disease, especially the “atypical” symptoms experienced by women and the elderly, the diagnosis of heart disease has improved. The prognosis for the patient is better when diagnosis and treatment are initiated early.
Similarly, educating the public about early access to emergency services when a patient develops acute chest pain can help save lives. The goal for the treatment of heart disease is to maximize longevity and quality of life.
Can cardiovascular disease be prevented?
It may take 10 to15 years from the beginning of a plaque formation in a coronary artery to narrow that artery to constrict blood flow.
The American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology have developed guidelines so that health care professionals may counsel and treat their patients to decrease the risk of developing heart disease. New attention is being paid to the role of weight reduction, diet, exercise, and the use of cholesterol-lowering medications called statins.
In the past, the goal for statin drugs like atorvastatin, was to lower the blood cholesterol level to a specific number and statins were prescribed for patients with high cholesterol levels or those who had had heart attacks. The new guidelines recommend that more patients may benefit from these statin drugs. Rather than having specific cholesterol numbers as a goal, the new goal is to lower the blood cholesterol level by 50% in high-risk patients and by 30% to 50% in those who are at lower risk to develop heart disease.
In addition to patients with a history of heart attack, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or stroke, statins may be appropriate for patients with high LDL cholesterol levels (the “bad” cholesterol), those who have type 2 diabetes, and those who have a 10-year risk of heart attack greater than 7.5%. You and your health care professional may estimate risk by using the American Heart Association's CV Risk Calculator.
Preventing cardiovascular disease is a lifelong commitment to control blood pressure and diabetes. Now, new opportunities exist to decrease risk even further with these new guidelines. These are also the steps to take to decrease the risk of stroke and peripheral artery disease.
"Leading Causes of Death." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 11 Jan. 2013.
Arnett, D. K., et al. "AHA/ACC/HHS Strategies to Enhance Application of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease and Comorbid Conditions." Circulation 130.18 (2014): 1662-1667.
Bamberg, F., et al. "Meta-analysis and systematic review of the long-term predictive value of assessment of coronary atherosclerosis by contrast-enhanced coronary computed tomography angiography." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 57.24 (2011): 2426-2436.
Greenland, P., et al. "2010 ACCF/AHA guideline for assessment of cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 56.25 (2010): e50-e103.
Stone, N. J., et al. "2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 7 Nov. 2013.