Heart Attack Treatment Options
What is the Treatment For Heart Attack?
The 2013 ACCF/AHA guidelines for treatment of a heart attack are summarized as follows:
- Ideally, transport patient to a PCI capable hospital; if not PCI capable, transfer patient as soon as possible and less than 120 min; if anticipated transfer is more than 120 min, give fibrinolytic agent within 30 min of arrival
- Send to cath lab
- Diagnostic angiogram
- PCI (Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) also termed stenting or stent placement
- If reocclusion occurs or perfusion fails in a patient given a fibrinolytic, arrange transfer to a PCI capable facility; for other patients treated with a fibrinolytic, transfer to a PCI facility within about 3-24hrs
- If step 5 occurs, step 3 should follow at a PCI capable facility were either medical therapy, a PCI or a CABG should be done Patients who are not candidates for PCI therapy usually undergo medical or surgical (CABG) therapy. For a more detailed presentation of the medical treatments and CABG, read the heart attack treatment article.
Quick GuideHeart Disease: Causes of a Heart Attack
What is a heart attack?
A heart attack (also known as a myocardial infarction or MI) is the death of heart muscle from the sudden blockage by a blood clot in a coronary artery that supplies blood to the heart. Blockage of a coronary artery deprives the heart muscle of blood and oxygen, causing injury to the heart muscle. Injury to the heart muscle causes chest pain and pressure. If blood flow is not restored within 20 to 40 minutes, irreversible death of the heart muscle will begin to occur. Muscle continues to die for 6 to 8 hours at which time the heart attack usually is "complete." The dead heart muscle is replaced by scar tissue.
Click here to view interactive photos of hearts that have suffered a heart attack.
How is a heart attack treated?
Treatment of heart attacks includes:
The primary goal of treatment is to quickly open the blocked artery and restore blood flow to the heart muscle, a process called reperfusion. Once the artery is open, damage to heart muscle ceases, and pain improves. By minimizing the extent of heart muscle damage, early reperfusion preserves the pumping function of the heart. Optimal benefit is obtained if reperfusion can be established within the first 4 to 6 hours of a heart attack. Delay in establishing reperfusion can result in more widespread damage to heart muscle and a greater reduction in the ability of the heart to pump blood. Patients with hearts that are unable to pump sufficient blood develop heart failure, decreased ability to exercise, and abnormal heart rhythms. Thus, the amount of healthy heart muscle remaining after a heart attack is the most important determinant of the future quality of life and longevity.
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 11/17/2015