Heart Attack Related Diseases & Conditions

Medical conditions are often related to other diseases and conditions. Our doctors have compiled a list of ailments related to the topic of Heart Attack. These conditions may be a cause or symptom of Heart Attack or be a condition for which you may be at increased risk.

  • Gallbladder Pain (Gall Bladder Pain) Gallbladder pain (often misspelled "gall bladder") is generally produced by of five problems, biliary colic, cholecystitis,...learn more »
  • 12 Heart Attack Symptoms and Early Warning Signs Recognizing heart attack symptoms and signs can help save your life or that of someone you love. Some heart attack symptoms,...learn more »
  • Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Congestive heart failure (CHF) refers to a condition in which the heart loses the ability to function properly. Heart disease,...learn more »
  • Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension) Low blood pressure, also referred to as hypotension, is blood pressure that is so low that it causes symptoms or signs due to the...learn more »
  • Blood Clots Blood clots can occur in the venous and arterial vascular system. Blood clots can form in the heart, legs, arteries, veins,...learn more »
  • Polycythemia (High Red Blood Cell Count) Polycythemia (elevated red blood cell count) causes are either primary (aquired or genetic mutations) or secondary (diseases,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Polycythemia (High Red Blood Cell Count) Article
    • Polycythemia facts
    • What is polycythemia?
    • What are normal ranges of hematocrit, red cell counts, and hemoglobin?
    • What causes polycythemia?
    • What are the causes of primary polycythemia?
    • What are the common causes of secondary polycythemia?
    • Can other sources of erythropoietin (EPO) cause polycythemia?
    • What is relative polycythemia?
    • What are the risk factors for polycythemia?
    • What is stress polycythemia?
    • What are the symptoms of polycythemia?
    • When should I see a doctor about polycythemia?
    • How is polycythemia diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for polycythemia?
    • What are the complications of polycythemia?
    • Can polycythemia be prevented?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) for polycythemia?
  • High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) High blood pressure is defined as a pressure of 140/90 mmHg or higher in the arteries. Genetic factors, high salt intake, and...learn more »
  • Pulmonary Embolism (Blood Clot in the Lung) A pulmonary embolism (PE) occurs when a piece of a blood clot from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) breaks off and travels to an artery...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pulmonary Embolism (Blood Clot in the Lung) Article
    • Pulmonary embolism facts
    • What is a pulmonary embolism?
    • What are the causes and risk factors for pulmonary embolism?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of pulmonary embolism?
    • How is pulmonary embolism diagnosed?
    • PERC Rule for Pulmonary Embolus
    • Basic testing (CBC, electrolytes, BUN, creatinine blood test, chest X-ray, EKG)
    • Pulmonary angiogram
    • d-Dimer blood test
    • CT scan
    • Ventilation-perfusion scans
    • Venous Doppler study
    • Echocardiography
    • What is the treatment for pulmonary embolism?
    • Anticoagulation
    • Thrombolytic therapy
    • What is the prognosis for pulmonary embolism?
    • Can pulmonary embolism be prevented?
  • Fatigue Fatigue can be described in various ways. Sometimes fatigue is described as feeling a lack of energy and motivation (both mental...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fatigue Article
    • Fatigue Facts
    • Fatigue introduction
    • What causes fatigue?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of fatigue?
    • How is the cause of fatigue diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for fatigue?
    • Can fatigue be prevented?
  • Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs, PVC) Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs, PVC) are premature heartbeats originating from the ventricles of the heart. PVCs are...learn more »
  • Arrhythmia An arrhythmia is an abnormal heart rhythm. With an arrhythmia, the heartbeats may be irregular or too slow (bradycardia), to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Arrhythmia Article
    • Introduction to Arrhythmia
    • What causes an arrhythmia?
    • What are the types of arrhythmias?
    • What are the symptoms of arrhythmias?
    • How are arrhythmias diagnosed?
    • How are arrhythmias treated?
    • What medications are used to treat arrhythmias?
    • What lifestyle changes should be made?
    • What is electrical cardioversion?
    • What is a pacemaker?
    • What is an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)?
    • What is catheter ablation?
    • What is heart surgery?
  • Angina Angina is chest pain due to inadequate blood supply to the heart. Angina symptoms may include chest tightness, burning,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Angina Article
    • What is angina?
    • What causes angina?
    • What are the different types of angina?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of angina?
    • How is angina diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for angina?
    • Angioplasty and coronary artery bypass surgery
    • What are other methods are used to evaluate angina?
    • What is the prognosis for angina?
    • Can angina be prevented?
  • Fainting (Syncope) Fainting, also referred to as blacking out, syncope, or temporary loss of consciousness has many causes. Often a person will have...learn more »
  • Chest Pain Chest pain is a common complaint by a patient in the ER. Causes of chest pain include broken or bruised ribs, pleurisy,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Chest Pain Article
    • Chest pain facts
    • Chest pain introduction
    • What are the sources of chest pain?
    • What are the causes of chest pain?
    • How is chest pain diagnosed?
    • What is the philosophy of the approach to chest pain diagnosis?
    • What is the diagnosis and treatment for chest pain?
    • Broken or bruised ribs
    • Costochondritis
    • Pleuritis or pleurisy
    • Pneumothorax
    • Shingles
    • Pneumonia
    • Pulmonary embolism
    • Angina and heart attack (myocardial infarction)
    • Pericarditis
    • Aorta and aortic dissection
    • Esophagus and reflux esophagitis
    • Referred abdominal pain
  • Shock (Medical) Medical shock is a life-threatening medical condition. There are several types of medical shock, septic shock, anaphylactic...learn more »
    In This Article
    Shock (Medical) Article
    • Shock facts
    • What is shock?
    • What are the types of shock?
    • What are the causes of shock?
    • What are the symptoms of shock?
    • When should I seek medical care for shock?
    • What is the treatment for shock?
    • Can shock be prevented?
    • What is the outlook for shock?
  • Stroke A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain caused by either a blood clot (ischemic) or bleeding...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stroke Article
    • Stroke facts
    • What is a stroke?
    • What are the different types of stroke?
    • What causes a stroke?
    • What are the risk factors for stroke?
    • What is a transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What are the warning signs of a stroke?
    • What are the symptoms of a stroke?
    • How is a stroke diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for stroke?
    • What is the prognosis for stroke?
    • Is recovery after a stroke possible?
    • What is stroke rehabilitation?
    • Can strokes be prevented?
  • Pericarditis Pericarditis is the inflammation of the pericardial sac that surrounds the heart. The causes of pericarditis include injury from...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pericarditis Article
    • Pericarditis facts
    • What is pericarditis?
    • What causes pericarditis?
    • What are the symptoms of pericarditis?
    • How is pericarditis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for pericarditis?
    • What are the complications of pericarditis?
  • Heart Murmur A heart murmur is the sound generated when blood flow within the heart is not smooth. Causes of heart murmurs can be functional,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Murmur Article
    • Heart murmur facts
    • What is a heart murmur?
    • What causes a heart murmur?
    • What are the risk factors for heart murmur?
    • What are the symptoms of a heart murmur?
    • When should I seek medical care for a heart murmur?
    • How is a heart murmur diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a heart murmur?
    • What are the complications of a heart murmur?
    • Can heart murmur be prevented?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) for a patient with a heart murmur?
  • Scalp Psoriasis Scalp psoriasis causes red, raised, scaly patches that may extend from the scalp to the forehead and the back of the neck and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Scalp Psoriasis Article
    • What is scalp psoriasis?
    • What is the cause of scalp psoriasis?
    • What are scalp psoriasis symptoms and signs?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose scalp psoriasis?
    • What are scalp psoriasis home remedies and topical treatments? Are there shampoos for scalp psoriasis?
    • What are office treatments for scalp psoriasis?
    • What are systemic treatments for psoriasis?
    • What is the prognosis of scalp psoriasis? Is there a cure?
    • Which physicians treat scalp psoriasis?
    • Are there support groups for individuals with psoriasis?
  • Aortic Stenosis Aortic valve stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of the aortic valve of the heart. The causes of aortic stenosis are wear and tear...learn more »
    In This Article
    Aortic Stenosis Article
    • Aortic valve stenosis facts
    • What is aortic stenosis?
    • What causes aortic stenosis?
    • How does aortic stenosis affect the left ventricle pump?
    • What are the symptoms of aortic stenosis?
    • What might the doctor find in patients with aortic stenosis?
    • How is aortic stenosis diagnosed?
    • How is aortic stenosis treated?
  • Stress Stress occurs when forces from the outside world impinge on the individual. Stress is a normal part of life. However,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stress Article
    • Stress facts
    • What is stress?
    • A brief history of stress
    • What are the signs and symptoms of poorly managed stress?
    • Who is most vulnerable to stress? What are the risk factors for stress?
    • Teen stress
    • What is the healthy response to stress?
    • How does the response to stress work?
    • What is the role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (grouping) in stress?
    • What is the role of the locus coeruleus in stress?
    • How do the connections in the brain work in stress?
    • What do we know about using (activating) and overusing our internal systems that respond to stress?
    • What are the effects of stress on medical and psychological conditions?
    • Conclusions about the effects of stress
    • What can people do for stress management? What are home remedies to combat stress symptoms?
    • What's in the future for stress?
  • Women's Health Women's health is an important topic area to guide a woman through the stages of her life, as well as knowing the conditions and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Women's Health Article
    • Introduction to women's health
    • Women's general health and wellness
    • Female anatomy
    • The female reproductive System
    • Female hormones
    • Diseases more common in women
    • Cancer in women
    • Women's cosmetic concerns
    • Menstruation
    • Sexuality
    • Fertility, birth control, and infertility
    • Pregnancy
    • Motherhood
    • Menopause
    • The mature woman - post menopause
  • Atrial Fibrillation (AFib) Atrial fibrillation or AFib is an abnormality in the heart rhythm which involves irregular and often rapid beating of the heart....learn more »
  • Orthostatic Hypotension Orthostatic hypotension symptoms include lightheadedness, weakness, blurred vision, and syncope or passing out. Causes of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Orthostatic Hypotension Article
    • Orthostatic hypotension facts
    • What is orthostatic hypotension?
    • What causes orthostatic hypotension?
    • What are the risk factors for orthostatic hypotension?
    • What are the symptoms of orthostatic hypotension?
    • When should I call the doctor for orthostatic hypotension?
    • How is orthostatic hypotension diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for orthostatic hypotension?
    • What are the complications of orthostatic hypotension?
    • How can orthostatic hypotension be prevented?
  • Abnormal Heart Rhythms (Heart Rhythm Disorders) Heart rhythm disorders vary from minor palpitations, premature atrial contractions (PACs), premature ventricular contractions...learn more »
    In This Article
    Abnormal Heart Rhythms (Heart Rhythm Disorders) Article
    • How does the heart work?
    • What is a heart rhythm disorder (arrhythmia)?
    • What causes heart rhythm disorders?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of heart rhythm disorders?
    • What are the different types of heart rhythm disorders?
    • Premature atrial contractions (PACs) and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)
    • Sinus tachycardia
    • Sinus bradycardia
    • Abnormal heart rhythms
    • Tachycardia
    • Ventricular fibrillation (V-fib)
    • Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach)
    • Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT)
    • Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome
    • Atrial fibrillation (A-fib)
    • Atrial flutter
    • Bradycardia
    • Heart blocks
    • When to seek medical care
    • How are heart rhythm disorders diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for heart rhythm disorders?
    • What is the prognosis for heart rhythm disorders?
    • Can heart rhythm disorders be prevented?
  • Obesity Obesity is the state of being well above one's normal weight. A person has traditionally been considered to be obese if they are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Obesity Article
    • Obesity facts
    • What is obesity?
    • How common is obesity?
    • What are the health risks associated with obesity?
    • What causes obesity?
    • What are other factors associated with obesity?
    • How is body fat measured?
    • What about weight-for-height tables?
    • What is the body mass index (BMI)?
    • Does it matter where body fat is located? (Is it worse to be an "apple" or a "pear"?)
    • What can be done about obesity?
    • What is the role of physical activity and exercise in obesity?
    • What is the role of diet in the treatment of obesity?
    • What is the role of medication in the treatment of obesity?
    • What about herbal fen/phen?
    • What about meal substitutes, artificial sweeteners, and over-the-counter (OTC) products?
    • What is the role of surgery in the treatment of obesity?
    • How can patients choose a safe and successful weight-loss program?
  • Heart Failure Heart failure is caused by many conditions including coronary artery disease, heart attack, cardiomyopathy, and conditions that...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Failure Article
    • What Is Heart Failure?
    • What Causes Heart Failure?
    • What Are the Symptoms of Heart Failure?
    • What Are the Types of Heart Failure?
    • How Is Heart Failure Diagnosed?
    • How Is Heart Failure Treated?
    • Stages of Heart Failure
    • How Can I Prevent Heart Failure From Worsening?
    • How Can I Prevent Further Heart Damage?
    • What Medications Should I Avoid?
    • How Can I Improve My Quality of Life?
    • What Surgical Procedures Are Used to Treat Heart Failure?
    • Treatment Is a Team Effort
    • What Is the Outlook for People With Heart Failure?
  • Palpitations Palpitations are uncomfortable sensations of the heart beating hard, rapidly, or irregularly. Some types of palpitations are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Palpitations Article
    • What are palpitations?
    • What are the different types of palpitations?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of palpitations?
    • How are palpitations diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for palpitations?
    • What is the prognosis for palpitations?
    • Can palpitations be prevented?
  • Panic Attacks Panic attacks are sudden feelings of terror that strike without warning. These episodes can occur at any time, even during sleep....learn more »
    In This Article
    Panic Attacks Article
    • Panic attack facts
    • What are panic attacks?
    • Are panic attacks serious?
    • What are causes and risk factors for panic attacks?
    • What are panic attack symptoms and signs in adults, teens, and children?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose panic disorder? What types of doctors treat this condition?
    • What is the treatment for panic attacks? What medications treat panic attacks?
    • What are complications of untreated panic attacks?
    • What is the prognosis for panic disorder?
    • Is it possible to prevent panic attacks?
  • Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA, Mini-Stroke) When a portion of the brain loses blood supply, through a blood clot or embolus, a transient ischemic attack (TIA, mini-stroke)...learn more »
    In This Article
    Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA, Mini-Stroke) Article
    • Transient ischemic attack (TIA) facts
    • What is a transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What are the causes of transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What are the risk factors for transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What are the symptoms of transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • How is transient ischemic attack (TIA) diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What is the prognosis for transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
  • Cardiovascular Disease (CVD, Heart Disease) Heart disease (coronary artery disease) occurs when plaque builds up in the coronary arteries, the vessels that supply blood to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD, Heart Disease) Article
    • What is cardiovascular disease?
    • What are the risk factors for cardiovascular disease?
    • What causes cardiovascular disease?
    • What are the symptoms of cardiovascular?
    • How is cardiovascular disease diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for cardiovascular disease?
    • What is the prognosis for cardiovascular disease?
    • Can cardiovascular disease be prevented?
  • How the Heart Works The heart is a very important organ in the body. It is responsible for continuously pumping oxygen and nutrient-rich blood...learn more »
    In This Article
    How the Heart Works Article
    • Intoduction to How The Heart Works
    • How Does Blood Travel Through the Heart?
    • Where Is Your Heart and What Does It Look Like?
    • How Does Blood Flow Through the Heart?
    • How Does Blood Flow Through Your Lungs?
    • What Are the Coronary Arteries of the Heart?
    • How Does the Heart Beat?
  • Cholesterol High cholesterol and triglyceride levels increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Getting your cholesterol and triglyceride...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cholesterol Article
    • What is cholesterol?
    • What are the different types of cholesterol?
    • Why is high cholesterol dangerous?
    • Where does cholesterol come from?
    • What are normal cholesterol levels?
    • Which foods can help lower cholesterol?
    • What other lifestyle interventions help lower cholesterol?
    • What medications are available to treat high cholesterol?
  • Stress and Heart Disease The connection between stress and heart disease is not clear. Stress itself may be a risk factor, or high levels of stress may...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stress and Heart Disease Article
    • Heart disease and stress introduction
    • How Does Stress Increase the Risk for Heart Disease?
    • Does Stress Affect Everyone the Same?
    • What Causes Stress?
    • What Are the Warning Signs of Stress?
    • How Can I Cope With Stress?
    • How Can I Keep a Positive Attitude?
    • How Can I Reduce My Stressors?
    • How Can I Learn How to Relax?
    • Guidelines for Healthy Eating to Fight Stress
    • What if Sleep Problems Are Contributing to my Stress
  • High Blood Pressure Treatment High blood pressure (hypertension) means high pressure (tension) in the arteries. Treatment for high blood pressure include...learn more »
    In This Article
    High Blood Pressure Treatment Article
    • What is high blood pressure (hypertension)?
    • Which lifestyle modifications are beneficial in treating high blood pressure?
    • Alcohol
    • Smoking
    • Coffee and caffeinated beverages
    • Salt
    • Other dietary considerations
    • Obesity
    • Exercise and stress reduction
    • How is high blood pressure treated?
    • Starting treatment for high blood pressure
    • Treatment with combinations of drugs for high blood pressure
    • Emergency treatment for high blood pressure
    • Treatment during pregnancy
    • Which medications are used to treat high blood pressure?
    • Beta blockers
    • Diuretics
    • Calcium channel blockers (CCBs)
    • Alpha blockers
    • Clonidine
    • Minoxidil
    • Renin inhibitors
    • Aldosterone blockers
    • Combining agents
    • What about the patient's compliance with medication regimens?
    • Is alternative medicine used to treat high blood pressure?
    • What are the complications of high blood pressure?
    • Can high blood pressure be prevented?
    • What's new in high blood pressure?
  • Toothache A toothache is a pain on or around a tooth. It may be caused by a variety of things from a cavity, abscess, or even sinusitis....learn more »
    In This Article
    Toothache Article
    • What is a toothache?
    • What causes a toothache?
    • What are toothache symptoms and signs?
    • How is a toothache diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a toothache?
    • Are home remedies effective for a toothache?
    • How is a toothache treated during pregnancy?
    • What is the prognosis for a toothache?
    • Is it possible to prevent a toothache?
  • Grief: Loss of a Loved One Grief is the feeling one experiences after a loss (of a friendship, death of loved one, job). Complicated grief refers to grief...learn more »
    In This Article
    Grief: Loss of a Loved One Article
    • Grief: Loss of a loved one facts
    • What is grief?
    • What is mourning?
    • What are the effects of losing a loved one?
    • What are the causes and risk factors of prolonged grief?
    • What are the signs, symptoms, and stages of grief?
    • How is grief assessed?
    • How can people cope with grief?
    • What are the legal issues associated with dying and death?
    • Where can people get help?
  • Heart Attack Second Source WebMD Medical Reference...learn more »
  • Carotid Artery Disease The term carotid artery disease refers to the narrowing of the carotid arteries and can also be called carotid stenosis. Fatty...learn more »
    In This Article
    Carotid Artery Disease Article
    • What is carotid artery disease?
    • What are the causes of carotid artery disease?
    • What are the risk factors for carotid artery disease?
    • What are the symptoms of carotid artery disease?
    • How is carotid artery disease diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for carotid artery disease?
    • Surgery for carotid artery disease
    • What are the complications of carotid artery disease?
    • Can carotid artery disease be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for carotid artery disease?
  • Prevention Enjoying a healthy diet helps to prevent diseases. A good diet also helps to control celiac disease, diabetes, and high blood...learn more »
    In This Article
    Prevention Article
    • Maintaining health
    • Preventing and controlling diseases
    • Vitamins and minerals to maintain health
    • Vitamin supplements to prevent diseases
    • Diets to control and/or treat diseases
  • Alpha Thalassemia Alpha thalassemia is a disorder in which the alpha globin protein is underproduced. There are two pairs of genes that carry the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Alpha Thalassemia Article
    • Alpha thalassemia facts*
    • What is alpha thalassemia?
    • What are the symptoms of alpha thalassemia?
    • What are the types of alpha thalassemia?
    • How common is alpha thalassemia?
    • What genes are related to alpha thalassemia?
    • How do people inherit alpha thalassemia?
  • Diabetic Diet A diabetic diet, or diabetes diet helps keep blood glucose levels in the target range for patients. Exercise and medication may...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diabetic Diet Article
    • Diabetes diet facts*
    • Eating and Diabetes
    • Diabetes and Blood Glucose Levels
    • Your Diabetes Medicines
    • Diabetes and Exercise
    • Diabetes and Low Blood Sugar (Hypoglycemia)
    • Diabetes and the Food Pyramid
    • How much should I eat each day?
    • Starches
    • Vegetables
    • Fruits
    • Milk
    • Meat and Meat Substitutes
    • Fats and Sweets
    • Diabetes and Your Meal Plan
    • Diabetes and Measuring Your Food
    • When You Are Sick
    • How to Find More Help
  • Renal Artery Stenosis Renal artery stenosis is a narrowing of the diameter of the renal arteries. When the renal arteries narrow, the result is...learn more »
    In This Article
    Renal Artery Stenosis Article
    • Renal artery stenosis facts
    • What are the renal arteries?
    • What is renal artery stenosis?
    • What are the causes of renal artery stenosis?
    • How common is renal artery stenosis?
    • What are the symptoms of renal artery stenosis?
    • What problems does renal artery stenosis cause?
    • Who should be screened for renal artery stenosis?
    • How is renal artery stenosis diagnosed?
    • What are the common imaging tests to evaluate renal artery stenosis?
    • What functional tests are used for the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis?
    • What are medical treatments for renal artery stenosis?
    • What surgical procedures are available for renal artery stenosis?
    • Which patients can benefit from surgical procedures for renal artery stenosis?
  • Drowning (Dry, Wet, Near) Drowning is a common cause of death and disability worldwide. In the US, it is the third most common cause of accidental death....learn more »
    In This Article
    Drowning (Dry, Wet, Near) Article
    • Drowning facts and prevention
    • What is drowning and what are the statistics?
    • What happens during drowning?
    • Does the type of drowning matter?
    • Wet vs. dry drowning
    • Salt vs. fresh water drowning
    • What are the risk factors of drowning?
    • What are the symptoms of drowning?
    • When should one seek medical care for drowning?
    • How is drowning diagnosed?
    • How is drowning treated?
    • What are the complications of drowning?
    • How can drowning be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for a drowning victim?
  • Hypertensive Kidney Disease High blood pressure can damage the kidneys and is one of the leading causes of kidney failure (end-stage renal kidney disease)....learn more »
    In This Article
    Hypertensive Kidney Disease Article
    • High blood pressure and kidney disease facts*
    • Introduction to high blood pressure (hypertension) and kidney disease
    • What is high blood pressure?
    • How does high blood pressure hurt the kidneys?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of high blood pressure?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of chronic kidney disease? (CKD)?
    • How can kidney damage from high blood pressure be prevented?
    • How can high blood pressure be controlled?
    • Can medicines help control blood pressure?
    • Who is at risk for kidney failure related to high blood pressure?
    • Hope Through Research
  • Aortic Dissection Aortic dissection is a small tear in the large blood vessel that leads from the heart and supplies blood to the body. There are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Aortic Dissection Article
    • Aortic dissection facts
    • Introduction to aortic dissection
    • What are the causes of aortic dissection?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of aortic dissection?
    • How is aortic dissection diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for aortic dissection?
    • What is the prognosis for aortic dissection?
    • Can aortic dissection be prevented?
  • Diabetes and Kidney Disease In the United States diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure. High blood pressure and high levels of blood glucose...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diabetes and Kidney Disease Article
    • Kidney Disease of Diabetes Facts*
    • The Burden of Kidney Failure
    • The Course of Kidney Disease
    • Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease
    • Effects of High Blood Pressure
    • Preventing and Slowing Kidney Disease
    • Dialysis and Transplantation
    • Good Care Makes a Difference
    • Points to Remember
    • Hope through Research
    • For More Information
  • Antiemetics Nausea and vomiting are symptoms that may be caused by many conditions. Antiemetics are drugs that treat nausea and vomiting....learn more »
    In This Article
    Antiemetics Article
    • What can cause nausea and vomiting?
    • What types of medications are available to treat nausea and vomiting?
  • Myocarditis Myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscle and can be caused by a variety of infections, conditions, and viruses....learn more »
    In This Article
    Myocarditis Article
    • What is myocarditis?
    • What causes myocarditis?
    • What are symptoms of myocarditis?
    • How is myocarditis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for myocarditis?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for patients with myocarditis?
  • Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden cardiac arrest is an unexpected, sudden death caused by sudden cardiac arrest (loss of heart function). Causes and risk...learn more »
    In This Article
    Sudden Cardiac Arrest Article
    • Introduction to sudden cardiac arrest
    • What are the causes of sudden cardiac arrest?
    • What about sudden cardiac arrest in the young?
    • What are the symptoms of sudden cardiac arrest?
    • How is sudden cardiac arrest diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for sudden cardiac arrest?
    • Can sudden cardiac arrest be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for sudden cardiac arrest?
  • Heart Attacks in Women Heart disease, particularly coronary artery disease is the leading cause of heart attacks. Women are more likely to die from a...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attacks in Women Article
    • One woman's heart attack story
    • What is heart disease?
    • Do women need to worry about heart disease?
    • Do women of color need to worry about heart disease?
    • What can I do to prevent heart disease?
    • What does high blood pressure have to do with heart disease?
    • How can I lower my blood pressure?
    • What does high cholesterol have to do with heart disease?
    • What do my cholesterol and triglyceride numbers mean?
    • How can I lower my cholesterol?
    • How do I know if I have heart disease?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a heart attack?
    • One of my family members had a heart attack. Does that mean I'll have one too?
    • Sometimes my heart beats really fast and other times it feels like my heart skips a beat. Am I having a heart attack?
    • Should I take a daily aspirin to prevent heart attack?
    • Does taking birth control pills increase my risk for heart disease?
    • Does using the birth control patch increase my risk for heart disease?
    • Does menopausal hormone therapy (HT, HRT, ET) increase a woman's risk for heart disease?
    • For more information on heart disease in women
  • Marijuana Get the latest marijuana statistics and information. Learn its effects and how this drug, also known as pot, affects the brain....learn more »
    In This Article
    Marijuana Article
    • Marijuana facts
    • What is marijuana, and how is it abused?
    • What is medical marijuana? How is medical marijuana prescribed?
    • What are other names for marijuana?
    • What is the history and different types of marijuana?
    • Is marijuana addictive?
    • What are the psychological and social effects of abusing marijuana?
    • What are the physical effects of abusing marijuana?
    • What are the treatments for marijuana abuse and addiction?
    • Can marijuana abuse and addiction be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis of marijuana abuse and addiction?
    • Where can people find more information about marijuana abuse and addiction?
  • Heart Attack Treatment A heart attack involves damage or death of part of the heart muscle due to a blood clot. The aim of heart attack treatment is to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attack Treatment Article
    • What is a heart attack?
    • How is a heart attack treated?
    • Antiplatelet agents
    • Aspirin
    • Thienopyridines
    • Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors
    • Anticoagulants
    • Clot-dissolving drugs
    • Coronary angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
    • Coronary artery stents
    • Nitrates
    • Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
    • Beta blockers
    • Oxygen
    • Coronary artery bypass
    • What can a patient expect during recovery from a heart attack?
    • How can a second heart attack be prevented?
  • Steroid Abuse Anabolic steroids are synthetic substances that are related to testosterone and promote skeletal muscle growth and the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Steroid Abuse Article
    • Anabolic steroid abuse facts
    • What are anabolic steroids?
    • Why do people abuse anabolic steroids?
    • How do people abuse anabolic steroids?
    • Are anabolic steroids addictive? What are the symptoms and signs of anabolic steroid abuse?
    • What are the psychological and physical side effects of anabolic steroid abuse?
    • How are anabolic steroid abuse and addiction diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for anabolic steroid abuse and addiction?
    • Is it possible to prevent anabolic steroid abuse and addiction?
    • Where can I get more information on anabolic steroid abuse?
  • Childhood Obesity Fast-food consumption and lack of exercise are just a couple of causes of childhood obesity. Health effects of childhood obesity...learn more »
    In This Article
    Childhood Obesity Article
    • Childhood obesity facts
    • What is childhood obesity? How do health-care professionals diagnose childhood obesity?
    • How prevalent is childhood obesity?
    • What causes childhood obesity?
    • What are childhood obesity symptoms and signs?
    • What are risk factors for childhood obesity?
    • What are the risks, complications, and long-term health effects of childhood obesity?
    • What is the treatment for childhood obesity?
    • Is it possible to prevent childhood obesity?
    • What research is being done on childhood obesity?
    • Where can people find more information on childhood obesity?
  • Stress Management Techniques Stress may be considered as any physical, chemical, or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental unrest and that may be a...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stress Management Techniques Article
    • Stress-management facts
    • What is stress?
    • Who is most susceptible to stress?
    • What are the symptoms and effects of excess stress or "out-of-control" stress?
    • What can I do to better manage stress?
    • Exercise
    • Relaxation techniques and meditation
    • Other stress-management strategies; Time management
    • Organizational skills
    • Support systems
    • How can I get help with stress management?
  • Senior Sex Enjoying a satisfying sex life as we age is important to both physical and mental health. As we age, diseases and conditions may...learn more »
    In This Article
    Senior Sex Article
    • Senior sex facts*
    • Introduction to senior sex
    • What are the normal physical changes with age?
    • What causes sexual problems as we age?
    • What else may cause sexuality problems?
    • Am I too old to worry about safe sex?
    • Can emotions play a part?
    • What can I do to have an active sex life as I age?
  • Bath Salts Ingredients of the drug bath salts include mephedrone, methylone, MDPV, or MDPK. Feeling high and sexually stimulated are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bath Salts Article
    • Bath salts facts
    • What are bath salts, and how do people abuse bath salts?
    • What is the history of bath salts?
    • Are bath salts addictive?
    • Are bath salts legal?
    • What are risk and protective (prevention) factors for bath salts use disorder?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of bath salts intoxication?
    • What are the side effects, complications, and prognosis of abusing bath salts?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose bath salts use disorder?
    • What is the treatment for bath salts use disorder?
    • Where can people find more information about bath salts abuse and addiction?
  • Smoker's Lung: Pathology Photo Essay Smoker's lung photo essay is a collection of pictures and microscopic slides of lung disease caused by cigarette smoking....learn more »
    In This Article
    Smoker's Lung: Pathology Photo Essay Article
    • Smoker's lung introduction
    • What is the structure of the normal lung?
    • What processes determine normal function of the lung?
    • What are the abnormalities (diseases) in smoker's lung?
    • What happens to the lung in emphysema?
    • How does emphysema come about?
    • Why does smoker's lung look black?
    • What happens to the airways in chronic bronchitis?
    • Are smokers with COPD predisposed to developing pneumonia?
    • What about lung cancer in smokers?
    • Are any of the pulmonary consequences of smoking reversible?
    • From what do smokers die?
  • Symptoms of 12 Serious Diseases and Health Problems Learn how to recognize serious diseases and health problems like strokes, heart attacks, cancers, reproductive problems in...learn more »
  • Fabry Disease Fabry disease (Fabry's disease, alpha-galactosidase-A) is a genetic disorder with symptoms such as burning sensations in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fabry Disease Article
    • What is, and what causes Fabry disease?
    • What are the symptoms of Fabry disease?
    • Is there any treatment for Fabry disease?
    • What is the prognosis for Fabry disease?
    • What research is being done on Fabry disease?
    • For more information
  • Heart Attack Prevention About every 43 seconds in the US one in person in the US has a heart attack. Symptoms of heart attack in men and women include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attack Prevention Article
    • Heart attack prevention facts
    • What is a heart attack?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a heart attack in men and women?
    • Are signs and symptoms of a heart attack different in women?
    • What can I do to prevent a heart attack when home alone?
    • What kinds of diets are recommended to prevent heart attacks?
    • What tips and lifestyle changes can be made to prevent a heart attack?
    • Will exercise reduce my risk of having a heart attack?
    • What diseases or conditions put a person at a higher risk for a heart attack?
  • Cocaine and Crack Abuse Cocaine is an addictive stimulant that is smoked, snorted, and injected. Crack is cocaine that comes in a rock crystal that is...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cocaine and Crack Abuse Article
    • Cocaine and crack abuse facts
    • What is cocaine? What is crack?
    • How is cocaine abused?
    • What are cocaine's effects on the body and the mind?
    • What causes and prevents cocaine abuse and addiction?
    • What are symptoms and signs of cocaine abuse and addiction?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose cocaine addiction?
    • What is the treatment for cocaine and crack addiction?
    • What are symptoms and signs of cocaine withdrawal?
    • What are the long-term effects and the prognosis for cocaine and crack addiction?
    • Where can people find more information about cocaine and crack abuse?
  • Secondhand Smoke Secondhand smoke can cause illness and disease in nonsmokers. Some of these conditions include lung cancer, heart disease,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Secondhand Smoke Article
    • Secondhand smoke facts
    • What is secondhand smoke?
    • What causes secondhand smoke?
    • What are the health risks of secondhand smoke?
    • Lung cancer and secondhand smoke
    • Cardiovascular disease and secondhand smoke
    • Other lung diseases and secondhand smoke
    • Secondhand smoke and other effects on children
    • Secondhand smoke and the effects on pregnant women
    • Secondhand smoke and the possible link to breast cancer
    • Is there a safe level of secondhand smoke?
    • What can be done about secondhand smoke exposure?
    • What is thirdhand smoke?
  • Heart Attack Pathology: Photo Essay A heart attack is a layperson's term for a sudden blockage of a coronary artery. This photo essay inlcudes graphics, pictures,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attack Pathology: Photo Essay Article
    • What is a Heart Attack?
    • What are the structures and functions of a normal coronary artery?
    • What happens to the coronary artery in atherosclerosis?
    • Who gets coronary artery plaques and what happens to the plaques?
    • What happens to the heart muscle after a person survives a Heart Attack?
    • Can a person have more than one heart attack?
  • How to Lower Triglycerides Naturally Trigylcerides are fatty molecules that travel in the bloodstream. Excess sugar and fat can increase triglyceride levels....learn more »
    In This Article
    How to Lower Triglycerides Naturally Article
    • What are triglycerides?
    • What is the optimal range for blood triglycerides?
    • Is it possible to lower triglycerides naturally without drugs?
    • What dietary changes and foods help lower triglycerides?
    • What supplements help lower triglyceride levels?
    • What other lifestyle strategies help lower triglycerides?
    • What is the relationship between triglycerides and alcohol?
    • Is it possible to lower triglycerides quickly?
    • Do triglyceride-lowering strategies help raise HDL?
  • High Cholesterol: Frequently Asked Questions Cholesterol occurs naturally in the body. High blood cholesterol levels increase a person's risk of developing heart disease,...learn more »
    In This Article
    High Cholesterol: Frequently Asked Questions Article
    • What is cholesterol?
    • Why should I be concerned about cholesterol?
    • What's the difference between "good" and "bad" cholesterol?
    • How much cholesterol is too much?
    • Can I lower my risk for heart disease if I lower my cholesterol?
    • What makes my cholesterol levels go up?
    • What can I do to lower my cholesterol?
    • What medications are used to treat high cholesterol?
    • If a product's package reads "low cholesterol" does that mean that the product is low in fat and safe to eat?
    • At what age should people begin having their cholesterol checked?
  • Biorhythms Biologic rhythms, or biorhythms, are how our bodies respond to the regular phases of the sun, moon, and seasons. A medical...learn more »
    In This Article
    Biorhythms Article
    • What are biologic rhythms?
    • How does the "body clock" affect symptoms of illness?
    • Angina
    • Heart attack
    • High blood pressure (hypertension)
    • Hay fever (allergic rhinitis)
    • Asthma
    • Can the "body clock"  affect diagnostic testing?
    • Can drug therapy be matched to the "body clock?"
  • Fitness: Exercise for a Healthy Heart Regular exercise can help reduce the risk of heart disease. To achieve maximum benefits, do a mix of stretching exercise, aerobic...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fitness: Exercise for a Healthy Heart Article
    • How Do I Get Started?
    • What Type of Exercise Is Best?
    • What Are Examples of Aerobic Exercises?
    • How Often Should I Exercise For A Healthy Heart?
    • What Should I Include in My Program?
    • What Is the Rated Perceived Exertion Scale?
    • What Are Some Warm-Up Exercises?
    • Exercise while sitting
    • Stretching exercises
    • How Can I Avoid Over Doing It?
    • How Can I Stick With It?
    • General Workout Tips for People With Heart Failure
    • Exercise Precautions For A Heart Healthy Exercise Program
  • Fitness Regular physical activity can reduce the risk of disease. Regular exercise can also reduce the symptoms of stress and anxiety....learn more »
    In This Article
    Fitness Article
    • The importance of physical activity and fitness
    • Why should I be active?
    • Can everyone benefit from physical activity?
    • What are the recommendations for increasing fitness for youth, adults, and seniors?
    • How do I get started with a fitness plan?
    • When is a medical evaluation necessary?
    • How can I make physical activity a part of my life?
    • What are the components of physical fitness?
    • Fitness terms
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Heart Attack Prevention Series Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fats that help decrease one's cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as reduce the risk of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Heart Attack Prevention Series Article
    • What are fats, fatty acids, and omega-3 fatty acids?
    • What are the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids?
    • What is the scientific evidence behind omega-3 fatty acids?
    • Recommendations to prevent heart attacks
  • Is Pleurisy Contagious? Pleurisy or pleuritis is an inflammation of the lining around the lungs. Some of the causes of pleurisy include TB, the flu,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Is Pleurisy Contagious? Article
    • What is pleurisy?
    • Is pleurisy contagious?
    • How will I know if I have pleurisy?
    • How is pleurisy spread?
    • How will I know if I am cured of pleurisy?
    • When should I contact a doctor about pleurisy?
  • Disease Prevention in Women Disease prevention in women includes screening tests that are a basic part of prevention medicine. All screening tests are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Disease Prevention in Women Article
    • Disease prevention in women overview
    • Osteoporosis
    • Breast cancer
    • High blood pressure (hypertension)
    • Cervical cancer
    • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    • Hypercholesterolemia (hyperlipidemia, dyslipidemia)
    • Type II diabetes mellitus
    • Cancer of colon and rectum / polyps of colon and rectum
    • Bladder cancer
    • Glaucoma
    • Melanoma and other skin cancers
  • Lower Cholesterol Levels with Diet and Medication Cholesterol is naturally produced by the body, and is a building block for cell membranes and hormones. Low-density lipoprotein...learn more »
    In This Article
    Lower Cholesterol Levels with Diet and Medication Article
    • Cholesterol levels facts
    • What is cholesterol?
    • What are LDL and HDL cholesterol?
    • What determines the level of LDL cholesterol in the blood?
    • Does lowering LDL cholesterol prevent heart attacks and strokes?
    • How can LDL cholesterol levels be lowered?
    • What are "normal" cholesterol blood levels?
    • What are the 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines?
    • Why is HDL the good cholesterol?
    • What are LDL/HDL and total/HDL ratios?
    • How can levels of HDL cholesterol be increased?
    • What are triglycerides and VLDL?
    • Do high triglyceride levels cause atherosclerosis?
    • What causes elevated triglyceride levels?
    • How can elevated blood triglyceride levels be treated?
    • What are cholesterol-lowering foods?
    • What medications are available to lower cholesterol, lipids, and triglycerides?
    • Is lowering LDL cholesterol enough?
  • Smoking and Heart Disease Smoking increases the risk of heart disease in women and men. Nicotine in cigarettes decrease oxygen to the heart, increases...learn more »
    In This Article
    Smoking and Heart Disease Article
    • Smoking and heart disease introduction
    • How does smoking increase heart disease risk?
    • How can quitting smoking be helpful?
    • How to quit smoking
    • What should I do first to stop smoking?
    • How can I avoid smoking again?
  • Causes of Chest Pain: Signs and Symptoms Chest pain may be caused by many conditions. Learn when chest discomfort, pressure, and tightness is a medical emergency. Find...learn more »
  • Vitamins & Exercise: Heart Attack Prevention Series Vitamins and exercise can lower your risk for heart attack and heart disease. Folic acid, vitamins, and homocysteine levels are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Vitamins & Exercise: Heart Attack Prevention Series Article
    • Homocysteine, folic acid, and B vitamins
    • What about antioxidants for heart attack prevention?
    • How about exercise for heart attack prevention?
    • What about smoking cessation for heart attack prevention?
    • Recommendations to prevent heart attacks
  • Disease Prevention in Men Disease prevention in men includes routine screening tests that are part of basic prevention medicine. Take an active role in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Disease Prevention in Men Article
    • Disease prevention in men introduction
    • High blood pressure (hypertension)
    • Hypercholesterolemia (hyperlipidemia, dyslipidemia)
    • Type II diabetes mellitus
    • HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
    • Cancer of colon and rectum/polyps of colon and rectum
    • Prostate cancer
    • Glaucoma
    • Melanoma and other skin cancers
    • Bladder cancer
  • Heart Attack Prevention Overview Heart attacks are the major causes of unexpected, sudden death among men and women. A heart attack is also a significant cause of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attack Prevention Overview Article
    • Introduction
    • What is atherosclerosis?
    • What are coronary heart diseases (CHD)?
    • What is angina pectoris?
    • What is a heart attack?
    • Ventricular fibrillation
    • Heart failure
    • What is cerebral vascular disease?
    • Ischemic stroke
    • Hemorrhagic stroke
    • Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
    • When does the coronary atherosclerosis process begin?
    • Have most people done enough to prevent atherosclerosis and heart attacks?
    • What are the risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis and heart disease?
    • How can coronary atherosclerosis and heart attacks be prevented?