Headache

Headache Symptoms & Signs

Medical Author:

Related
Symptoms & Signs

A headache (medically termed cephalgia) is a pain in the head. Headaches can be located anywhere in the head, including above the eyes or the ears, behind the head (occipital headache), the top of the head (coronal headache), or in the back of the upper neck. Headache, like chest pain or backache, has many causes.

All headaches are considered primary headaches or secondary headaches. Primary headaches are not associated with other diseases. Examples of primary headaches are migraine headaches, tension headaches, and cluster headaches. Secondary headaches are caused by other diseases. The associated disease may be minor or major.

Headaches can be associated with symptoms such as

There are many types of headaches. Tension headaches are the most common type of primary headache. As many as 90% of adults have tension headaches. Tension headaches are more common among women than men.

Migraine headaches are the second most common type of primary headache. An estimated 28 million people in the U.S. have migraine headaches. Migraine headaches affect children as well as adults. Before puberty, boys and girls are affected equally by migraine headaches, but after puberty more women than men have them. Migraine often goes undiagnosed or is misdiagnosed as tension or sinus headaches.

Cluster headaches are a rare but important type of primary headache, affecting mainly men. The average age of cluster headache sufferers is 28-30 years of age, although headaches may begin in childhood.

Secondary headaches may result from innumerable conditions, ranging from life-threatening ones such as brain tumors, strokes, meningitis, vasculitis, and subarachnoid hemorrhages to less serious but common conditions such as withdrawal from caffeine, sinus infection (sinusitis), and discontinuation of analgesics (painkilling medication). Pregnancy sometimes causes headaches. Many people suffer from "mixed" headache disorders in which tension headaches or secondary headaches may trigger migraine.

The treatment of the headache depends on the type and severity of the headache and on other factors, such as the age of the patient.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 6/8/2017

Health concern on your mind? Visit the Symptom Checker.

REFERENCE:

Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.

Main Article on Headache
  • Headache Headaches can be divided into two categories: primary headaches and secondary headaches. Migraine headaches, tension headaches,...learn more »
Pictures, Images, Illustrations & Quizzes
Causes of Headache
    • 14 Warning Signs and Symptoms of Stroke Stroke is a major cause of death and disability in the US. Early identification and treatment of stroke helps reduce the risk of...learn more »
      In This Article
      14 Warning Signs and Symptoms of Stroke Article
      • What is a stroke?
      • What is FAST (recognizing stroke symptoms and signs early)?
      • What are FAST stroke symptoms and signs?
      • What are other signs and symptoms of stroke in men and women?
      • What are the signs and symptoms of a mini-stroke (TIA, transient ischemic attack)
      • What should I do if someone is exhibiting signs and symptoms of a stroke?
      • Which specialties of doctors treat strokes?
    • Aneurysm (Brain) Brain aneurysm (cerebral aneurysm) is caused by microscopic damage to artery walls, infections of the artery walls, tumors,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Aneurysm (Brain) Article
      • Brain aneurysm facts
      • What is a brain aneurysm and what causes a brain aneurysm?
      • What are the signs and symptoms of brain aneurysm?
      • How is brain aneurysm diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for brain aneurysm?
      • What is the outcome of brain aneurysm?
      • What are future directions for the treatment of brain aneurysm?
    • Anthrax Anthrax is a deadly infectious disease that may be transmitted to humans by infected animals or by biological warfare. There are...learn more »
      In This Article
      Anthrax Article
      • Anthrax facts
      • What is anthrax? Is anthrax contagious?
      • What causes anthrax?
      • How is anthrax contracted?
      • How common is anthrax? What are risk factors for anthrax infection?
      • How long is the incubation period with anthrax?
      • What kinds of diseases does anthrax cause? What are the signs and symptoms of anthrax infections?
      • What specialists treat anthrax?
      • How is the diagnosis made of anthrax?
      • What is the treatment for anthrax?
      • Is it possible to prevent anthrax? Is there an anthrax vaccine?
      • What is the prognosis for anthrax infections?
    • Anxiety Anxiety is a feeling of apprehension and fear characterized by symptoms such as trouble concentrating, headaches, sleep problems,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Anxiety Article
      • Generalized anxiety disorder facts
      • What is anxiety?
      • What are the types of anxiety disorders?
      • What are anxiety symptoms and signs?
      • What is generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)?
      • How common is generalized anxiety disorder?
      • Are other mental health diagnoses associated with generalized anxiety disorder?
      • What are causes and risk factors for generalized anxiety disorder?
      • How do health-care professionals diagnose generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)?
      • What types of specialists treat generalized anxiety disorder?
      • What is the treatment for anxiety?
      • What are the side effects of anxiety medications?
      • What are complications of generalized anxiety disorder?
      • Is it possible to prevent anxiety?
      • What is the prognosis of generalized anxiety disorder?
      • Are there support groups for those with generalized anxiety disorder?
      • Where can people find additional information on generalized anxiety disorder?
    • Asthma in Children Asthma in children manifests with symptoms such as coughing and wheezing. Rates of asthma in children are increasing. Asthma in...learn more »
      In This Article
      Asthma in Children Article
      • What is asthma in children?
      • How common is asthma in children?
      • What are the signs and symptoms of asthma in children?
      • How is asthma in children diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for asthma in children?
      • What is the prognosis for asthma in children?
      • Can asthma in children be prevented?
    • Astigmatism Astigmatism is an eye condition in which the cornea is abnormally curved and causes out-of-focus vision. Symptoms of astigmatism...learn more »
      In This Article
      Astigmatism Article
      • Astigmatism facts
      • What is the definition of astigmatism?
      • What are the different types of astigmatism?
      • What causes astigmatism?
      • Who is at risk for astigmatism?
      • What are symptoms of astigmatism?
      • What are signs of astigmatism?
      • What tests are used to diagnose astigmatism?
      • What is the treatment for astigmatism?
      • What is the prognosis for astigmatism?
      • Can astigmatism be prevented?
    • Brain Cancer Cancers that form from brain tissue are called primary brain tumors. Brain tumors may be malignant (brain cancer) or benign....learn more »
      In This Article
      Brain Cancer Article
      • Brain cancer facts
      • What is brain cancer?
      • What are grades of brain cancers?
      • What are the types of brain cancers?
      • What is brain cancer staging?
      • What is metastatic brain cancer?
      • What causes brain cancer?
      • Do cell phones cause brain cancer?
      • What are brain cancer symptoms and signs?
      • What type of doctors treat brain cancer?
      • What tests do doctors use to diagnose brain cancer?
      • What is the treatment for brain cancer?
      • Are there any home remedies for brain cancer?
      • What are the side effects of brain cancer treatment?
      • What is the prognosis of treated brain cancer?
      • What can I do to help my family (and me) cope with my diagnosis of brain cancer?
      • Is it possible to prevent brain cancer?
      • Where can I get more information about my type of brain cancer?
    • Brain Damage: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment Brain damage causes destruction or deterioration of brain cells. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and acquired brain injury (ABI) are...learn more »
      In This Article
      Brain Damage: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment Article
      • Brain damage introduction
      • What are the types of brain damage and how severe are they?
      • What causes brain damage?
      • What are the symptoms of brain damage?
      • How are brain damage and brain injuries treated?
      • Can I prevent brain injuries?
    • Brain Lesions (Lesions on the Brain) A brain lesion is defined as an area of damaged brain. Brain lesions (lesions on the brain) are caused by: trauma,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Brain Lesions (Lesions on the Brain) Article
      • Brain lesions facts
      • Brain anatomy
      • What are brain lesions?
      • What causes brain lesions?
      • What are the types of brain lesions?
      • What are the signs and symptoms of brain lesions?
      • How are brain lesions diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for brain lesions?
      • Can brain lesions be prevented?
      • What is the prognosis for brain lesions?
    • Brain Tumor A brain tumor can be either benign (non cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), primary, or secondary. Causes and risk factors...learn more »
      In This Article
      Brain Tumor Article
      • Brain tumor facts*
      • What is the brain?
      • What are the tumor grades and types?
      • Tumor grade
      • Types of primary brain tumors
      • What are the risk factors for brain tumors?
      • What are the symptoms of a brain tumor?
      • How are brain tumors diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for a brain tumor?
      • What type of surgery is available for brain tumors?
      • Radiation therapy for brain tumors
      • Chemotherapy for brain tumors
      • What about a second opinion for brain tumor treatment?
      • Nutrition during brain tumor treatment
      • What supportive care is available for patients and caregivers?
      • What about rehabilitation after brain tumor treatment?
      • What about follow-up care after brain tumor treatment?
      • Sources of support
      • Taking part in cancer research
    • Broken Bone (Types of Bone Fractures) A broken bone is a fracture. There are different types of fractures, such as: compressed, open, stress, greenstick,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Broken Bone (Types of Bone Fractures) Article
      • What is a broken bone (fracture)?
      • What causes a broken bone?
      • What are the most common types of broken bones?
      • Compression fracture
      • Skull fracture
      • Stress fracture
      • What are the most common bones that are broken?
      • Broken hand or fingers
      • Broken wrist
      • Broken hip
      • Broken leg
      • Broken toe
      • Broken shoulder
      • What are the signs and symptoms of a broken bone?
      • When should I call a doctor if I think I have broken a bone?
      • How is a broken bone diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for a broken bone?
      • What about surgery for a broken bone?
      • How can fractures be prevented?
      • What is the prognosis for a broken bone?
    • Brucellosis The bacteria Brucella causes brucellosis, an infectious zoonotic disease in humans. Symptoms and signs include fatigue, fever,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Brucellosis Article
      • Brucellosis facts
      • What is brucellosis?
      • What is the history of brucellosis?
      • What are causes of brucellosis?
      • What are risk factors for brucellosis?
      • Is brucellosis contagious? How long is brucellosis contagious?
      • What is the incubation period for brucellosis?
      • How is brucellosis transmitted to humans?
      • What are symptoms and signs of brucellosis?
      • What specialists treat brucellosis?
      • How do physicians diagnose brucellosis?
      • What are brucellosis treatments?
      • Are there home remedies for brucellosis?
      • What is the prognosis of brucellosis?
      • Is it possible to prevent brucellosis? Is there a brucellosis vaccine?
    • Bullying Bullying is repeated physical or verbal aggression that involves an imbalance of power. Types of bullying include physical,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Bullying Article
      • Bullying facts
      • What is bullying?
      • What are the different types of bullying?
      • How common is bullying?
      • What makes a bully? Why do kids bully? Why do adults bully?
      • What are causes and risk factors of bullying?
      • What are symptoms and signs of children and adults who are bullied?
      • What are the effects of bullying?
      • What should victims of bullying and their parents do to stop bullying?
      • What should parents do if they think their child is bullying others?
      • What can people do if they see someone being bullied?
      • What measures can be implemented to prevent bullying at school and in the workplace?
      • Where can people find more information about bullying?
    • Cat Scratch Disease Cat scratch disease (CSD or cat scratch fever), a bacterial disease caused by Bartonella henselae, is characterized by fever,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Cat Scratch Disease Article
      • Cat scratch disease facts*
      • What is cat scratch disease? What are cat scratch disease symptoms and signs?
      • How do cats transmit Bartonella henselae to people?
      • What are serious but rare complications of cat scratch disease?
      • What is the treatment for cat scratch disease?
      • Is it possible to prevent cat scratch disease?
      • Where can people find more information about cat scratch disease?
    • Chikungunya Virus (Chikungunya Infection) Chikungunya virus is an infection spread (transmitted) through a bite from an infected mosquito. Common symptoms of Chikungunya...learn more »
      In This Article
      Chikungunya Virus (Chikungunya Infection) Article
      • What is Chikungunya virus?
      • Where is Chikungunya virus most prevalent?
      • How is Chikungunya virus transmitted?
      • Is Chikungunya virus infection contagious?
      • What are Chikungunya virus infection symptoms?
      • How is Chikungunya virus infection diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for Chikungunya virus infection?
      • How can Chikungunya virus infection be prevented?
    • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS or SEID) Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID) is a debilitating and complex disorder...learn more »
      In This Article
      Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS or SEID) Article
      • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID) facts
      • What is chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS or SEID)?
      • What causes chronic fatigue syndrome or systemic exertional intolerance disease?
      • What are risk factors for CFS/SEID?
      • What are systemic exertion intolerance disease or chronic fatigue syndrome symptoms and signs?
      • What are CFS/SEID symptoms in men?
      • What are SEID/CFS symptoms in women?
      • How is chronic fatigue syndrome (or systemic exertion intolerance disease) diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for CFS/SEID?
      • Is there a cure for CFS/SEID?
      • What is the prognosis (outcome) for CFS/SEID?
      • Is it possible to prevent CFS/SEID?
      • Where can people find additional information about CFS/SEID?
    • Cold, Flu, Allergy Treatments Before treating a cold, the flu, or allergies with over-the-counter (OTC) medications, it's important to know what's causing the...learn more »
      In This Article
      Cold, Flu, Allergy Treatments Article
      • Facts about cold, flu, and allergy treatments
      • Introduction to cold, flu, and allergy treatments
      • What are the differences between allergy, cold, and flu symptoms?
      • What are the different types of medications for headaches, body aches, fever, and flu-like symptoms?
      • Nasal congestion, sneezing, and runny nose
      • Cough
      • Sore throat and other symptoms
      • What about vitamin C and zinc?
      • What are some important considerations for the safe use of OTC products?
    • Coma (Medical) Coma is the inability to waken or react to the surrounding environment. The Glasgow Coma Scale is frequently used to measure the...learn more »
      In This Article
      Coma (Medical) Article
      • What is a coma?
      • What is the Glasgow Coma Scale?
      • What are the causes of a coma?
      • Trauma
      • Bleeding (hemorrhage)
      • Epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid hemorrhages
      • Tumors
      • Swelling
      • Infection
      • Lack of Oxygen
      • Hypoglycemic coma
      • Poisons
      • How is coma diagnosed?
      • What tests help diagnose coma?
      • What is the prognosis for coma?
    • Common Cold The common cold (viral upper respiratory tract infection) is a contagious illness that may be caused by various viruses. Symptoms...learn more »
    • Concussion Concussion is a short-lived loss of brain function that is due to head trauma. There are two types of concussion, simple and...learn more »
      In This Article
      Concussion Article
      • What is concussion?
      • What causes concussion?
      • What are the types of concussion?
      • What are the signs and symptoms of concussion?
      • How is concussion diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for concussion?
      • How can concussion prevented?
      • What is the future of concussion?
    • Corneal Disease The cornea is the clear outer layer of the eye. If it is damaged by disease, infection, or injury, vision problems may occur....learn more »
      In This Article
      Corneal Disease Article
      • What is the cornea?
      • What are the different types of corneal disease?
      • What are the causes and risk factors of corneal disease?
      • What are the signs and symptoms of corneal disease?
      • What types of health care specialists diagnose and treat corneal disease?
      • How do health care professionals diagnose corneal disease?
      • What is the treatment for corneal disease?
      • What are the potential complications of corneal disease?
      • Is it possible to prevent corneal disease?
    • Cough (Chronic Cough) Chronic cough is a cough that does not go away and is generally a symptom of another disorder such...learn more »
    • Cysticercosis (Pork Tapeworm Infection) Cysticercosis is an infection caused by Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm. Symptoms include seizures, lethargy, nausea and...learn more »
      In This Article
      Cysticercosis (Pork Tapeworm Infection) Article
      • Cysticercosis (pork tapeworm infection) facts
      • What is cysticercosis?
      • What causes cysticercosis?
      • What are risk factors for cysticercosis?
      • How is cysticercosis transmitted?
      • What is the incubation period for cysticercosis?
      • Is cysticercosis contagious?
      • What are cysticercosis symptoms and signs?
      • What specialists treat cysticercosis?
      • How do health-care professionals diagnose cysticercosis?
      • What is the treatment for cysticercosis?
      • What are the complications of cysticercosis?
      • What is the prognosis of cysticercosis?
      • Is it possible to prevent cysticercosis?
    • Dengue Fever Dengue fever is contracted from the bite of a striped Aedes aegypti mosquito. Symptoms and signs of dengue include headache,...learn more »
    • Depression Depression is an illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and affects the way a person eats and sleeps, the way one...learn more »
      In This Article
      Depression Article
      • Depression facts
      • What is a depressive disorder? Depression vs. sadness
      • What are myths about depression?
      • What are the types of depression, and what are depression symptoms and signs?
      • Depression symptoms and signs in men
      • Depression symptoms and signs in women
      • Depression symptoms and signs in teenagers
      • Depression symptoms and signs in children
      • What are the risk factors and causes of depression?
      • Postpartum depression
      • What specialists treat depression?
      • What tests do health-care professionals use to diagnose depression?
      • What treatments are available for depression?
      • What is the general approach to treating depression?
      • What about sexual dysfunction related to antidepressants?
      • What about discontinuing antidepressants?
      • What are complications of depression?
      • What is the prognosis for depression?
      • Is it possible to prevent depression?
      • What about self-help and home remedies for depression?
      • How can someone help a person who is depressed?
      • Where can one seek help for depression?
      • What is in the future for depression?
      • Where can people find more information about depression?
    • Domestic Violence Domestic violence, or intimate partner abuse, is when one person in an intimate relationship uses any means to control the other...learn more »
      In This Article
      Domestic Violence Article
      • Domestic violence facts
      • What is domestic violence? What are the types of domestic violence?
      • What is the history of domestic violence?
      • What are the effects of domestic abuse?
      • What are the causes or risk factors for intimate partner violence?
      • What are the warning signs and symptoms of intimate partner abuse?
      • How is domestic violence assessed?
      • How is intimate partner violence treated?
      • How is intimate partner abuse legally addressed?
      • What is the prognosis for domestic violence?
      • How can intimate partner abuse be prevented and stopped?
      • Where can people get help for domestic violence?
    • Double Vision Double vision (diplopia) is a symptom that my indicate Graves' disease, myasthenia gravis, stroke, multiple sclerosis,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Double Vision Article
      • What is double vision?
      • What causes double vision?
      • What are the symptoms and signs of double vision?
      • How do health-care professionals diagnose the cause of double vision?
      • What is the treatment for double vision?
      • What types of doctors treat double vision?
      • Is it possible to prevent double vision?
      • What is the prognosis for double vision?
    • Early Pregnancy Symptoms and Signs Pregnancy symptoms can vary from woman to woman, and not all women experience the same symptoms. When women do experience...learn more »
      In This Article
      Early Pregnancy Symptoms and Signs Article
      • Early pregnancy symptoms and signs facts
      • How soon do early pregnancy symptoms start?
      • Are pregnancy symptoms the same for every woman?
      • 16 signs and symptoms of early pregnancy
      • What are the later signs and symptoms and signs of pregnancy?
      • What options help soothe and relieve pregnancy symptoms?
      • Pregnancy symptoms vs. PMS (premenstrual syndrome)
    • Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease or Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever) Ebola hemorrhagic fever (HF) is an often-fatal disease that causes fever, headache, vomiting, diarrhea, sore throat, stomach...learn more »
      In This Article
      Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease or Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever) Article
      • Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola virus disease) facts
      • What is Ebola hemorrhagic fever?
      • What is the history of Ebola hemorrhagic fever?
      • Is the Ebola virus contagious?
      • What causes Ebola hemorrhagic fever?
      • What are risk factors for Ebola hemorrhagic fever?
      • What are Ebola virus disease symptoms and signs?
      • What types of health care professionals treat Ebola hemorrhagic fever?
      • What is the contagious period for the Ebola virus?
      • What is the incubation period for the Ebola virus?
      • How do health care professionals diagnose Ebola hemorrhagic fever?
      • What is the medical treatment for Ebola hemorrhagic fever?
      • What are complications of Ebola hemorrhagic fever?
      • What is the prognosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever?
      • Is it possible to prevent Ebola hemorrhagic fever? Is there an Ebola vaccine?
      • What is the latest research on Ebola hemorrhagic fever?
      • Where can people find more information about Ebola?
    • Encephalopathy Encephalopathy means brain disease, damage, or malfunction. Causes of encephalopathy are varied and numerous. The main symptom of...learn more »
      In This Article
      Encephalopathy Article
      • Encephalopathy facts
      • Encephalopathy definition and overview
      • What causes encephalopathy?
      • What are the symptoms of encephalopathy?
      • How is encephalopathy diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for encephalopathy?
      • What are the complications of encephalopathy?
      • What is the prognosis (outlook) for encephalopathy?
      • Can encephalopathy be prevented?
      • For more information on types of encephalopathy
    • Eye Strain Eye strain is a symptom caused by looking at something for a long time. Symptoms and signs include redness, light sensitivity,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Eye Strain Article
      • Eye strain facts
      • What is eye strain?
      • What causes eye strain?
      • What are the symptoms of eye strain?
      • What are the signs of eye strain?
      • How do health-care professionals diagnose eye strain?
      • What is the treatment for eye strain?
      • What is the prognosis of eye strain?
      • Is it possible to prevent eye strain?
    • Fever Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 F (37 C), in practice, a person is usually not...learn more »
      In This Article
      Fever Article
      • Fever facts
      • What is a fever?
      • What causes a fever?
      • What are the signs and symptoms of a fever?
      • How do health-care professionals diagnose a fever?
      • How should someone take a temperature for fever?
      • What is the treatment for a fever?
      • What are home remedies for a fever?
      • When should someone seek medical care for a fever?
      • What kind of doctors treat a fever?
      • What are complications of a fever?
      • What is the prognosis for a fever?
      • Is it possible to prevent a fever?
      • Where can people find more information about fevers?
    • Flu (Influenza) Influenza (flu) is a respiratory illness caused by a virus. Flu symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, headache,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Flu (Influenza) Article
      • Flu (influenza, conventional, H1N1, H3N2, and bird flu [H5N1]) facts
      • What is flu (influenza)?
      • Flu vs. cold
      • Flu vs. food poisoning
      • What are the causes of the flu (influenza)?
      • When does flu season begin and end?
      • What are flu (influenza) symptoms in adults and in children?
      • Does a child's first flu infection help to determine the patient's lifelong risk to other viruses?
      • What is the incubation period for the flu?
      • How long is the flu contagious, and how long does the flu last?
      • How do health-care professionals diagnose the flu (influenza)?
      • How does flu spread?
      • What is the key to flu (influenza) prevention?
      • Are there any flu shot or nasal spray vaccine side effects in adults or in children?
      • How effective is the flu vaccine?
      • Why should the flu (influenza) vaccine be taken every year?
      • What are some flu treatments an individual can do at home (home remedies)?
      • What types of doctors treat the flu?
      • What medications treat the flu?
      • What can people eat when they have the flu?
      • When should a person go to the emergency department for the flu?
      • Who should receive the flu vaccine, and who has the highest risk factors? When should someone get the flu shot?
      • What is the prognosis for patients who get the flu? What are possible complications of the flu?
      • Can the flu be deadly?
      • What is the bird (avian) flu?
      • Do antiviral agents protect people from the flu?
      • Is it safe to get a flu shot that contains thimerosal?
      • Where can people find additional information about the flu?
    • Fungal Meningitis Fungal meningitis is a rare disease that is not contagious. Symptoms include fever, headache, stiff neck, nausea, and vomiting....learn more »
      In This Article
      Fungal Meningitis Article
      • Fungal meningitis facts*
      • What causes fungal meningitis?
      • How is fungal meningitis transmitted?
      • What are risk factors for fungal meningitis?
      • What are fungal meningitis symptoms and signs?
      • How is fungal meningitis diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for fungal meningitis?
      • Can fungal meningitis be prevented?
    • Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA or Temporal Arteritis) Giant cell arteritis, inflammation of blood vessel walls, affects 10%-15% of polymyalgia rheumatica patients. Symptoms of giant...learn more »
      In This Article
      Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA or Temporal Arteritis) Article
      • Giant cell arteritis (GCA) facts
      • What is giant cell arteritis?
      • What causes giant cell arteritis?
      • What are giant cell arteritis symptoms and signs?
      • How do health-care professionals diagnose giant cell arteritis?
      • What is the treatment for giant cell arteritis?
      • What is the prognosis for patients with giant cell arteritis?
      • Is it possible to prevent giant cell arteritis?
      • What are complications of giant cell arteritis?
    • Glaucoma Glaucoma is a common eye condition in which the fluid pressure inside the eye rises because of slowed fluid drainage from the...learn more »
      In This Article
      Glaucoma Article
      • Glaucoma facts
      • What is glaucoma?
      • How common is glaucoma?
      • What causes glaucoma?
      • What are glaucoma risk factors?
      • What are the different types of glaucoma?
      • What are glaucoma symptoms and signs?
      • What specialists treat glaucoma?
      • How do physicians diagnose glaucoma?
      • How often should someone be screened for glaucoma?
      • What is the treatment for glaucoma?
      • What medications (eyedrops) treat glaucoma?
      • What types of surgery or laser therapy treat glaucoma?
      • What is the prognosis of glaucoma?
      • Is it possible to prevent glaucoma?
      • What is in the future for glaucoma?
    • Hantavirus Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a disease transmitted by rodents. Symptoms include fever and muscle pain. HPS can be...learn more »
      In This Article
      Hantavirus Article
      • Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) facts
      • What is hantavirus? What is hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)?
      • What is the history of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome?
      • What causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome?
      • What are risk factors for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome?
      • Is hantavirus contagious?
      • How long is hantavirus contagious?
      • What is the incubation period for hantavirus?
      • What are hantavirus pulmonary syndrome symptoms and signs?
      • How is hantavirus pulmonary syndrome diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome?
      • What specialties of doctors treat hantavirus?
      • What are complications of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome?
      • What is the prognosis of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome?
      • Is it possible to prevent hantavirus pulmonary syndrome?
      • Where can people get more information on hantavirus pulmonary syndrome?
    • Heart Attack Heart attack happens when a blood clot completely obstructs a coronary artery supplying blood to the heart muscle. A heart attack...learn more »
      In This Article
      Heart Attack Article
      • Heart attack facts
      • What is a heart attack?
      • What causes a heart attack?
      • What are the symptoms of a heart attack?
      • What are the complications of a heart attack?
      • What are the risk factors for atherosclerosis and heart attack?
      • How to diagnose a heart attack
      • What is the treatment for heart attack?
      • What are the risk factors for heart attack in women?
      • What are the symptoms of heart attack in women and how is heart attack diagnosed?
      • How is heart attack in women treated?
      • What about hormone therapy and heart attack in women?
      • What is new in heart attack?
    • Heart Attack Treatment A heart attack involves damage or death of part of the heart muscle due to a blood clot. The aim of heart attack treatment is to...learn more »
      In This Article
      Heart Attack Treatment Article
      • What is a heart attack?
      • How is a heart attack treated?
      • Antiplatelet agents
      • Aspirin
      • Thienopyridines
      • Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors
      • Anticoagulants
      • Clot-dissolving drugs
      • Coronary angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
      • Coronary artery stents
      • Nitrates
      • Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
      • Beta blockers
      • Oxygen
      • Coronary artery bypass
      • What can a patient expect during recovery from a heart attack?
      • How can a second heart attack be prevented?
    • Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) Hereditary angioedema or HAE is a genetic disease that causes swelling of the skin and tissues beneath it. Symptoms of HAE...learn more »
      In This Article
      Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) Article
      • Hereditary angioedema (HAE) definition and facts:
      • What is hereditary angioedema (HAE)?
      • What are the symptoms of hereditary angioedema (HAE)?
      • What are the types or forms of hereditary angioedema (HAE)?
      • What causes hereditary angioedema (HAE)?
      • What triggers hereditary angioedema (HAE)?
      • What about pregnancy and hereditary angioedema (HAE)?
      • Which specialties of doctors treat hereditary angioedema (HAE)?
      • How is hereditary angioedema (HAE) diagnosed?
      • What are the treatment guidelines for hereditary angioedema (HAE)?
      • How can a person with hereditary angioedema (HAE) avoid triggers and manage the disease?
      • Tips for managing and living with hereditary angioedema (HAE)
      • What are the complications of hereditary angioedema (HAE)?
      • What is the prognosis for a person with hereditary angioedema (HAE)?
    • How Long Is a Cold or Flu Contagious? Viruses cause the common cold and the flu. Early symptoms and signs for a cold and the flu are similar, however, flu symptoms are...learn more »
      In This Article
      How Long Is a Cold or Flu Contagious? Article
      • How long is a cold or flu contagious?
      • How will I know if I have a cold or the flu?
      • How do cold and flu viruses spread?
      • How will I know if I am cured of the flu or a cold?
      • When should someone seek medical care for a cold or the flu?
    • Is Lyme Disease Contagious? Lyme disease may be transmitted to humans via the bite of an infected tick. The bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi causes the disease...learn more »
      In This Article
      Is Lyme Disease Contagious? Article
      • What is Lyme disease?
      • Is Lyme disease contagious?
      • How will I know if I have Lyme disease?
      • How is Lyme disease transmitted?
      • When will I know I am cured of Lyme disease? How long does Lyme disease last?
      • When should I contact a medical caregiver about Lyme disease?
    • Is Malaria Contagious? Malaria is transmitted via the bite of an infected mosquito. The incubation period for malaria depends upon the species of...learn more »
      In This Article
      Is Malaria Contagious? Article
      • What is malaria?
      • Is malaria contagious?
      • What is the incubation period for malaria?
      • How is malaria transmitted?
      • How long does malaria last, and how long will it take to be cured of malaria?
      • When should people seek medical care for a suspected malaria infection?
    • Is Meningitis Contagious? Meningitis, inflammation of the meninges, symptoms and signs include neck stiffness, headache, and fever. There are five types of...learn more »
      In This Article
      Is Meningitis Contagious? Article
      • What is meningitis?
      • Is meningitis contagious?
      • How contagious is meningitis?
      • How long is meningitis contagious?
      • What is the incubation period for meningitis?
      • How is meningitis transmitted?
      • How long does meningitis last?
      • When should someone seek medical care for meningitis?
    • Is Norovirus Contagious? Noroviruses cause food poisoning symptoms in infected individuals. Norovirus is transmitted via direct and indirect contact....learn more »
      In This Article
      Is Norovirus Contagious? Article
      • What is norovirus?
      • Is norovirus contagious?
      • What is the contagious period for norovirus?
      • How will I know if I have norovirus?
      • How is norovirus transmitted?
      • How will I know I am cured of norovirus?
      • When should I contact a medical caregiver about norovirus?
    • Is Scarlet Fever Contagious? Group A strep bacteria cause scarlet fever. Scarlet fever is transmitted via person-to-person contact and by coming in contact...learn more »
      In This Article
      Is Scarlet Fever Contagious? Article
      • What is scarlet fever?
      • Is scarlet fever contagious?
      • How will I know if I have scarlet fever?
      • How is scarlet fever transmitted?
      • When will I know I am cured of scarlet fever?
      • When should I contact a physician about scarlet fever?
    • Is Swine Flu (H1N1) Contagious? Swine flu (H1N1) is a contagious virus that spreads when an infected individual expels virus-containing droplets into the air...learn more »
      In This Article
      Is Swine Flu (H1N1) Contagious? Article
      • What is swine flu?
      • Is swine flu (H1N1) contagious?
      • What is the contagious period for swine flu (H1N1)?
      • How will I know if I have swine flu?
      • How is swine flu transmitted?
      • How will I know if I am cured of swine flu?
      • When should I contact a medical caregiver about swine flu (H1N1)?
    • Is the Ebola Virus Contagious? Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a highly contagious disease that is transmitted through direct contact. Ebola's incubation period...learn more »
      In This Article
      Is the Ebola Virus Contagious? Article
      • What is Ebola?
      • Is Ebola contagious?
      • What is the incubation period for the Ebola virus?
      • How will I know if someone is infected with Ebola?
      • How is the Ebola virus transmitted?
      • How will I know if someone is cured of Ebola? What is the contagious period for Ebola?
      • When should I contact a medical caregiver about Ebola?
    • Jet Lag Jet lag (desynchonosis) is a temporary disorder that results from travel across time zones. Symptoms include anxiety,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Jet Lag Article
      • What is jet lag?
      • What are other symptoms and signs of jet lag?
      • How long does jet lag last?
      • What is a time zone?
      • What causes jet lag?
      • How does the body keep time?
      • Does the direction of travel matter?
      • Do the symptoms of jet lag vary in intensity?
      • What are risk factors for jet lag?
      • Are there any remedies for jet lag? Is it possible to prevent jet lag?
      • What is the treatment for jet lag?
      • Are there effective medications for jet lag? What is the role of melatonin in jet lag?
    • Lassa Fever Lassa fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever that causes flu-like symptoms. Ribavirin is the standard treatment for Lassa fever....learn more »
      In This Article
      Lassa Fever Article
      • Lassa fever facts
      • What is Lassa fever?
      • What is the history of Lassa fever?
      • What are causes and risk factors for Lassa fever?
      • Is Lassa fever contagious? If so, what is the contagious period for Lassa fever?
      • When is Lassa fever no longer contagious?
      • What is the incubation period for Lassa fever?
      • What are Lassa fever symptoms and signs?
      • How do physicians diagnose Lassa fever?
      • What is the treatment for Lassa fever?
      • What are complications for Lassa fever?
      • What is the prognosis of Lassa fever?
      • Is it possible to prevent Lassa fever? Is there a vaccine for Lassa fever?
      • What research is being done on Lassa fever?
      • Where can people find more information on Lassa fever?
    • Legionnaires' Disease Legionellosis is an infection caused by the Legionella pneumophila bacterium. There are two forms of legionellosis: Pontiac fever...learn more »
      In This Article
      Legionnaires' Disease Article
      • Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever (legionellosis) facts
      • What causes legionellosis? What is the history of Legionnaires' disease?
      • Where is the Legionella bacterium found?
      • What are risk factors for Legionnaires' disease?
      • How is Legionnaires' disease spread?
      • How common is Legionnaires' disease?
      • What are the usual symptoms of Legionnaires' disease?
      • How is the diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease made?
      • What are medical treatments for Legionnaires' disease?
      • Is it possible to prevent Legionnaires' disease?
    • Leptospirosis Leptospirosis is an infectious disease that causes symptoms such as fever, headache, and chills. Treatment for leptospirosis...learn more »
      In This Article
      Leptospirosis Article
      • Leptospirosis facts
      • What is leptospirosis?
      • What causes leptospirosis?
      • Is leptospirosis contagious? What is the contagious period for leptospirosis?
      • What is the incubation period for leptospirosis?
      • What are risk factors for leptospirosis?
      • What are leptospirosis symptoms and signs?
      • What specialists treat leptospirosis?
      • How do physicians diagnose leptospirosis?
      • What is the treatment for leptospirosis?
      • What is the prognosis of leptospirosis?
      • Is a vaccine available for leptospirosis? Is it possible to prevent leptospirosis?
    • Listeria Listeria is a type of bacteria that can cause food poisoning. Listeriosis symptoms include diarrhea, nausea, and...learn more »
      In This Article
      Listeria Article
      • Listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes infection) facts
      • What is listeriosis? What causes listeriosis?
      • What are the risk factors for listeriosis?
      • Is Listeria contagious?
      • How is listeriosis spread?
      • What are listeriosis symptoms and signs?
      • What is the incubation period for Listeria?
      • How long does a Listeria infection last?
      • What types of doctors treat listeriosis?
      • How do health care professionals diagnose listeriosis?
      • What is the treatment for listeriosis?
      • Are there home remedies for listeriosis?
      • How does a person get listeriosis?
      • What are the complications of listeriosis?
      • Is it possible to prevent listeriosis?
      • What is the prognosis for Listeria infections?
      • If a person has eaten recalled food potentially contaminated with Listeria, what should he or she do?
      • What is the government doing about listeriosis?
    • Low Blood Sugar (Hypoglycemia) Low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, is a syndrome in which a person's blood sugar is dangerously low. People with type 1 and type 2...learn more »
      In This Article
      Low Blood Sugar (Hypoglycemia) Article
      • Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) definition and facts
      • What is low blood sugar?
      • Who gets low blood sugar?
      • What can cause low blood sugar?
      • Why is low blood sugar dangerous?
      • What are the symptoms and signs that my blood sugar levels are too low?
      • How is low blood sugar treated?
      • What else can I do to control my blood sugar levels?
    • Lupus (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus or SLE) Systemic lupus erythematosus is a condition characterized by chronic inflammation of body tissues caused by autoimmune disease....learn more »
      In This Article
      Lupus (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus or SLE) Article
      • Systemic lupus erythematosus facts
      • What is systemic lupus erythematosus? What are the different types of lupus?
      • What are risk factors and causes of systemic lupus erythematosus? Is lupus contagious? Is lupus hereditary?
      • What is drug-induced lupus?
      • What are lupus symptoms and signs?
      • How do health-care professionals diagnose systemic lupus erythematosus?
      • What specialties of health care professionals treat lupus?
      • What is the treatment for systemic lupus? Is there a cure for lupus?
      • Is there a systemic lupus erythematosus diet?
      • How can a lupus patient help prevent disease activity (flares)?
      • How can systemic lupus erythematosus affect pregnancy or the newborn?
      • What is the prognosis of lupus? What does the future hold for people with systemiclupus?
      • Where can one get more information about systemic lupus erythematosus?
    • Malaria Malaria is a disease that is spread by the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. Malaria symptoms include fever, chills,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Malaria Article
      • Malaria facts
      • What is malaria?
      • Is malaria contagious?
      • What is the incubation period for malaria?
      • What causes malaria?
      • What are malaria symptoms and signs?
      • What specialists treat malaria?
      • How do physicians diagnose malaria?
      • What is the treatment for malaria?
      • Can malaria reoccur after treatment?
      • What is the prognosis of malaria?
      • Is there a malaria vaccine?
      • How can people prevent malaria?
    • Marburg Virus Disease Marburg virus disease is a zoonotic infection that produces symptoms such as chills, headaches, fever, and muscle aches. The...learn more »
      In This Article
      Marburg Virus Disease Article
      • Marburg virus disease facts
      • What is Marburg virus disease?
      • What causes Marburg disease?
      • What are the symptoms and signs of Marburg infection? What is the incubation period for a Marburg virus infection?
      • What are risk factors for getting Marburg infections?
      • How do health-care professionals diagnose Marburg viral infections?
      • What treatment is available for Marburg virus infections?
      • What specialists treat Marburg infections?
      • Is it possible to prevent Marburg virus infections?
      • What is the prognosis for a Marburg virus infection? What complications may occur with Marburg infections?
      • What research is ongoing about Marburg virus infections?
      • Why is Africa now seeing so many cases of what were relatively rare viral diseases like Ebola and Marburg virus infections?
    • MELAS Syndrome MELAS syndrome, a rare form of dementia, stands for Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes....learn more »
      In This Article
      MELAS Syndrome Article
      • What is MELAS?
      • What causes MELAS?
      • What are the symptoms of MELAS?
      • How is MELAS diagnosed?
      • When do people with MELAS develop symptoms?
      • How is MELAS treated?
      • Are there other mitochondrial diseases?
    • Melioidosis Melioidosis (Whitmore's disease) is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei bacteria. Symptoms include...learn more »
      In This Article
      Melioidosis Article
      • Melioidosis facts
      • What is melioidosis? What causes melioidosis?
      • What are risk factors for melioidosis?
      • What are signs and symptoms of melioidosis?
      • Is melioidosis contagious?
      • What specialists treat melioidosis?
      • How do health-care professionals diagnose melioidosis?
      • What is the incubation period for melioidosis?
      • Where does melioidosis occur?
      • What is the treatment for melioidosis?
      • Is it possible to prevent melioidosis?
      • What is the prognosis for melioidosis?
    • Meningitis Encephalitis is a brain inflammation that causes sudden fever, vomiting, headache, light sensitivity, stiff neck and back,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Meningitis Article
      • Encephalitis and meningitis facts
      • What is encephalitis?
      • What causes encephalitis?
      • What are encephalitis symptoms and signs?
      • Is encephalitis contagious?
      • Is it possible to prevent encephalitis? Is there an encephalitis vaccine?
      • What is meningitis?
      • What causes meningitis?
      • What are meningitis symptoms and signs?
      • What is encephalomyelitis?
      • What are the risk factors for encephalitis and meningitis?
      • What specialties of doctors treat encephalitis and meningitis?
      • How do health-care professionals diagnose encephalitis and meningitis?
      • What is the treatment of encephalitis and meningitis?
      • What is the prognosis (outlook), and what are the complications for patients with encephalitis or meningitis?
      • Is meningitis contagious?
      • Is it possible to prevent meningitis? Is there a meningitis vaccine?
    • Meningococcemia Meningococcemia is a bloodstream infection caused by Neisseria meningitides. Meningococcemia symptoms include fever, headache,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Meningococcemia Article
      • Meningococcemia facts
      • What is meningococcemia?
      • What causes meningococcemia?
      • What are risk factors for meningococcemia?
      • What are symptoms and signs of meningococcemia?
      • How is meningococcemia diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for meningococcemia?
      • What is the prognosis of meningococcemia?
      • Is it possible to prevent meningococcemia?
      • Where can people find more information on meningococcemia?
    • Mental Health Mental health is an optimal way of thinking, relating to others, and feeling. All of the diagnosable mental disorders fall under...learn more »
      In This Article
      Mental Health Article
      • Mental health and mental illness facts
      • What is mental health?
      • What is mental illness?
      • What are common types of mental illness?
      • What are the causes and risk factors for mental illness?
      • What are symptoms and signs of mental illness?
      • How is mental illness diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for a mental health problem?
      • Can mental health disorders be prevented?
      • What is the prognosis for mental-health problems?
      • Where can people get support for mental health disorders?
      • Where can people get more information about mental illnesses?
    • Migraine Headache Migraine headaches are severe headaches that are sensitive to light, sounds, and smells. Some people who suffer from...learn more »
      In This Article
      Migraine Headache Article
      • Migraine headache definition and facts
      • What is a migraine headache?
      • What is migraine with aura?
      • What are migraine triggers?
      • What are the signs and symptoms?
      • What causes migraines?
      • What are the risk factors?
      • How can I tell if it's a migraine or a different type of headache?
      • What are the treatments for migraine headaches?
      • Migraine medications
      • What remedies and lifestyle changes help manage and decrease the frequency of migraines?
      • How are migraines managed during pregnancy?
      • How are migraines managed in children?
      • What is the prognosis for a person with migraines?
      • Can the frequency of headaches be prevented?
    • Mucormycosis Mucormycosis (zygomycosis) is a fungal infection caused by Zygomycetes. Symptoms and signs include fever, headache, coughing,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Mucormycosis Article
      • Mucormycosis (zygomycosis) facts
      • What is mucormycosis?
      • What causes mucormycosis?
      • What are risk factors for mucormycosis?
      • What are symptoms and signs of mucormycosis?
      • How is mucormycosis diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment of mucormycosis?
      • What are complications of mucormycosis?
      • What is the prognosis of mucormycosis?
      • Can mucormycosis be prevented?
      • What research is being done on mucormycosis?
      • Where can people find more information on mucormycosis?
    • Mumps Mumps is an acute viral illness caused by the mumps virus. Symptoms of mumps include fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness,...learn more »
    • Naegleria fowleri Naegleria fowleri is an amoeba found in freshwater and soil. Infection results when the amoeba enters the nose and travels to the...learn more »
      In This Article
      Naegleria fowleri Article
      • Naegleria fowleri (brain-eating amoeba) infection facts
      • What is Naegleria fowleri?
      • What causes a Naegleria fowleri infection?
      • What are risk factors for Naegleria fowleri infection?
      • Is Naegleria fowleri infection contagious?
      • What are signs and symptoms of a Naegleria fowleri infection?
      • What types of specialists treat Naegleria fowleri infections?
      • How do health-care professionals diagnose a Naegleria fowleri infection?
      • What is the treatment for a Naegleria fowleri infection?
      • Is it possible to prevent Naegleria fowleri infections?
      • What is the prognosis of a Naegleria fowleri infection?
      • Where can people find additional information about Naegleria fowleri infections?
    • Nasopharyngeal Cancer Nasopharyngeal cancer is a form of cancer in which malignant cells form in the nasopharynx tissues. Risk factors include being of...learn more »
      In This Article
      Nasopharyngeal Cancer Article
      • Nasopharyngeal cancer facts
      • What is nasopharyngeal cancer?
      • What are risk factors for nasopharyngeal cancer?
      • What are nasopharyngeal cancer symptoms and signs?
      • What tests do health care professionals use to diagnose nasopharyngeal cancer?
      • What is staging?
      • How does cancer spread throughout the body?
      • What is metastasis?
      • What are the stages of nasopharyngeal cancer?
      • What is the treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer?
      • What are treatment options by stage?
      • What are treatment options for recurrent nasopharyngeal cancer?
      • What is the prognosis for nasopharyngeal cancer?
    • Neck Pain (Cervical Pain) Neck pain (cervical pain) may be caused by any number of disorders and diseases. Tenderness is another symptom of neck pain....learn more »
      In This Article
      Neck Pain (Cervical Pain) Article
      • What is neck pain? What are causes and risk factors for neck pain?
      • What are other symptoms that are associated with neck pain?
      • What are the structures of the neck?
      • What specialties of doctors treat neck pain?
      • How do health-care professionals diagnose neck pain?
      • What is the treatment for neck pain? What are home remedies for neck pain relief?
      • What is the prognosis for neck pain?
      • Is it possible to prevent neck pain?
    • Norovirus Infection Norovirus infection causes stomach flu, or gastroenteritis. It's a very contagious illness with symptoms that include nausea and...learn more »
    • Occipital Neuralgia (A Type of Headache) Occipital neuralgia is a type of headache that involves inflammation or irritation of occipital nerves. Signs and symptoms...learn more »
      In This Article
      Occipital Neuralgia (A Type of Headache) Article
      • What is occipital neuralgia?
      • What causes occipital neuralgia?
      • What are the symptoms and signs of occipital neuralgia?
      • Is there a test to diagnose this type of headache?
      • What therapies and medical treatment options are available occipital neuralgia?
      • Can occiptal neuralgia be cured?
      • Can this type of headache be prevented?
    • Paget's Disease Paget's disease is a chronic bone disorder due to irregular breakdown and formation of bone tissue. Symptoms of Paget's disease...learn more »
      In This Article
      Paget's Disease Article
      • Paget's disease facts
      • What is Paget's disease?
      • What are the types of Paget's disease?
      • What causes Paget's disease?
      • What are risk factors for Paget's disease?
      • Who discovered Paget's disease?
      • What are Paget's disease symptoms and signs?
      • What specialties of doctors diagnose and treat Paget's disease?
      • How do health care professionals make a diagnosis of Paget's disease?
      • What is the medical treatment for Paget's disease?
      • Are there home remedies for Paget's disease?
      • What are complications of Paget's disease?
      • What is the prognosis for Paget's disease?
      • Is it possible to prevent Paget's disease?
      • Where can I find more information about Paget's disease?
    • Plague (Black Death) Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis. Transmission to humans occurs via fleas that have bitten...learn more »
      In This Article
      Plague (Black Death) Article
      • Plague (Black Death) facts
      • What is plague? What is the history of plague?
      • What causes plague?
      • What are risk factors for plague?
      • What is the incubation period for plague?
      • What are plague symptoms and signs? What are the different types of plague?
      • Is plague contagious? How is plague transmitted?
      • What is the contagious period for pneumonic plague?
      • How do physicians diagnose plague?
      • What is the treatment for plague?
      • What is the prognosis of plague?
      • Is it possible to prevent plague? Is there a plague vaccine?
      • Could plague be used as a biological weapon?
    • Polymyalgia Rheumatica Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a disorder of the muscles and joints that causes pain and stiffness in the arms, neck, shoulders,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Polymyalgia Rheumatica Article
      • Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) facts
      • What is polymyalgia rheumatica?
      • What are polymyalgia rheumatica causes and risk factors?
      • What are symptoms and signs of polymyalgia rheumatica?
      • How do health care professionals make a diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica?
      • What is the medical treatment for polymyalgia rheumatica?
      • What is the prognosis for patients with polymyalgia rheumatica?
      • Is it possible to prevent polymyalgia rheumatica?
      • What are polymyalgia rheumatica complications?
    • Powassan Virus Disease Powassan (POW) virus disease is a rare tick-borne disease that causes symptoms such as confusion, memory problems, fever,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Powassan Virus Disease Article
      • Powassan virus (POW virus) facts
      • What are the types of Powassan virus (POW virus)?
      • What is Powassan virus disease?
      • What causes Powassan virus disease?
      • What are risk factors for Powassan virus disease?
      • Where have most incidences of Powassan virus disease occurred?
      • What are signs and symptoms of Powassan virus disease?
      • What tests do health care professionals use to diagnose Powassan virus disease?
      • What is the treatment for Powassan virus disease?
      • Are there home remedies for Powassan virus disease?
      • What are complications of Powassan virus disease?
      • What is the prognosis for Powassan virus disease?
      • Is it possible to prevent Powassan virus disease?
    • Q Fever Q fever is a highly infectious disease that causes high fever, diarrhea, cough, and sweating. Infected animals may transmit Q...learn more »
      In This Article
      Q Fever Article
      • Q fever facts
      • What is Q fever?
      • Where does the name Q fever come from? What causes Q fever?
      • How does Q fever spread?
      • What is the incubation period for Q fever?
      • Who is at risk for getting Q fever?
      • Are there different forms of Q fever?
      • Does pasteurization prevent the transmission of Q fever?
      • What are the signs and symptoms of Q fever?
      • What types of specialist treat Q fever?
      • How do physicians diagnose Q fever?
      • Is Q fever contagious?
      • What is the contagious period for Q fever?
      • What is the danger of getting Q fever while pregnant?
      • Is Q fever deadly?
      • What complications may arise with Q fever?
      • If it is not Q fever, what else could it be?
      • What should people do if they have been exposed to Q fever?
      • Is there any treatment for Q fever?
      • What is the prognosis for Q fever?
      • Is there a vaccine against Q fever?
      • Is Q fever a bioterrorism threat?
      • Where can people find more information about Q fever?
    • Rabies Rabies is a viral disease that is transmitted via the bite of an infected animal. Symptoms include fever, headaches, and...learn more »
      In This Article
      Rabies Article
      • Rabies facts
      • What is rabies?
      • What causes rabies?
      • What are risk factors for rabies?
      • What are rabies symptoms and signs?
      • How do physicians diagnose rabies?
      • What is the treatment for rabies?
      • What is the prognosis of rabies?
      • Is it possible to prevent rabies? Is there a rabies vaccine?
    • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a tick-borne disease that causes symptoms and signs such as fever, rash, headache, and muscle...learn more »
      In This Article
      Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Article
      • Rocky Mountain spotted fever facts
      • What is Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
      • Where do most cases of RMSF occur in the U.S.?
      • What causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
      • How is Rocky Mountain spotted fever transmitted?
      • What are Rocky Mountain spotted fever risk factors?
      • Is Rocky Mountain spotted fever contagious?
      • What are Rocky Mountain spotted fever symptoms and signs?
      • What is the incubation period for Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
      • What specialists treat Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
      • How do health-care providers diagnose Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
      • What is the treatment for Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
      • What is the prognosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
      • What are the long-term effects of Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
      • Is there a vaccine for Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
      • Is it possible to prevent Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
    • Salmonella Salmonella infection (salmonellosis) is typically caused by the consumption of contaminated foods. Symptoms of salmonellosis...learn more »
      In This Article
      Salmonella Article
      • Salmonella food poisoning facts
      • What is Salmonella food poisoning?
      • What causes Salmonella outbreaks? How does Salmonella spread?
      • What are risk factors for Salmonella food poisoning?
      • What are symptoms and signs of Salmonella poisoning?
      • Is Salmonella contagious?
      • What is the incubation period for a Salmonella infection?
      • What is the contagious period for salmonellosis?
      • What kinds of doctors treat Salmonella food poisoning?
      • How do physicians diagnose Salmonella food poisoning?
      • What is the treatment for Salmonella food poisoning?
      • What are complications of Salmonella food poisoning?
      • What is the prognosis of Salmonella food poisoning?
      • Is it possible to prevent Salmonella food poisoning?
    • Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis, a disease resulting from chronic inflammation, causes small lumps (granulomas) to develop in a great range of body...learn more »
      In This Article
      Sarcoidosis Article
      • Sarcoidosis facts
      • What is sarcoidosis?
      • What are causes and risk factors of sarcoidosis?
      • What are signs and symptoms of sarcoidosis?
      • Who gets sarcoidosis?
      • What do we know about sarcoidosis? Is sarcoidosis contagious or hereditary?
      • What are some things we don't know about sarcoidosis?
      • What types of doctors treat sarcoidosis?
      • What tests do health-care professionals use to diagnose sarcoidosis?
      • What do laboratory tests for sarcoidosis show?
      • What is the treatment for sarcoidosis?
      • What is the prognosis of sarcoidosis?
      • Is it possible to prevent sarcoidosis?
      • Where can a person find more information on sarcoidosis?
    • Scarlet Fever (Scarlatina) Scarlet fever, a bacterial infection caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria, causes symptoms and signs such as fever, rash with...learn more »
      In This Article
      Scarlet Fever (Scarlatina) Article
      • Scarlet fever facts
      • What is scarlet fever?
      • What causes scarlet fever?
      • What is the incubation period for scarlet fever?
      • What are risk factors for scarlet fever?
      • What is the contagious period for scarlet fever?
      • What are scarlet fever symptoms and signs?
      • How do physicians diagnose scarlet fever?
      • What is the treatment for scarlet fever?
      • What are complications of scarlet fever?
      • What is the prognosis of scarlet fever? What are the long-term effects of scarlet fever?
      • Is it possible to prevent scarlet fever? Is there a scarlet fever vaccine?
    • Separation Anxiety Separation anxiety disorder is a common childhood anxiety disorder that has many causes. Infants, children, older kids and adults...learn more »
      In This Article
      Separation Anxiety Article
      • Separation anxiety disorder facts
      • What is separation anxiety disorder?
      • What are separation anxiety disorder symptoms and signs?
      • What are causes and risk factors for separation anxiety disorder?
      • How is separation anxiety disorder diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for separation anxiety disorder?
      • What happens if separation anxiety disorder is left untreated?
      • Is it possible to prevent separation anxiety disorder?
      • Where can I find more information on separation anxiety disorder?
    • Shingles Shingles, or herpes zoster, is a painful rash caused by the varicella zoster virus. Other shingles symptoms include headache,...learn more »
    • Sick Building Syndrome Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) or also referred to as sick building syndrome or environmental illness is the name given by...learn more »
      In This Article
      Sick Building Syndrome Article
      • Sick building syndrome facts
      • What is sick building syndrome?
      • Why is sick building syndrome controversial?
      • What types of specialists treat sick building syndrome?
      • What causes sick building syndrome?
      • What are risk factors for sick building syndrome?
      • What are sick building syndrome symptoms and signs?
      • How is sick building syndrome diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for sick building syndrome?
      • What are complications of sick building syndrome?
      • What is the prognosis of sick building syndrome?
      • Is there a way to prevent sick building syndrome?
    • Sinus Infection (Sinusitis) Sinus infection (sinusitis) is caused by allergies, infection, and chemicals or other irritants of sinuses. Signs and symptoms...learn more »
    • STDs in Men Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections transmitted during sexual contact. They may be caused by viruses, bacteria,...learn more »
      In This Article
      STDs in Men Article
      • STDS in men: Common infections and facts
      • What are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)?
      • Who is at risk for STDs?
      • What causes STDs in men?
      • What are the signs and symptoms of STDs in men?
      • List of STDs in men
      • 1. Chlamydia
      • 2. Gonorrhea
      • 3. Trichomoniasis
      • 4. HIV
      • 5. Genital herpes
      • 6. Genital warts (HPV)
      • 7. Hepatitis
      • 8. Syphilis
      • 9. Zika virus
      • Which specialties of doctors treat STDs in Men?
      • How are STDs in men diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for STDs in men?
      • What is the prognosis for STDs in men?
      • Can STDs in men be prevented?
    • Strep Throat Strep throat is a bacterial infection of the throat. Signs and symptoms of strep throat include headache, nausea,...learn more »
    • Streptococcal Infections Group A streptococcal infections are caused by group A streptococcus, a bacteria that causes a variety of health problems,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Streptococcal Infections Article
      • Group A streptococcal infections facts
      • What is group A Streptococcus (GAS)?
      • How are group A streptococcal (GAS) infections contracted?
      • What diseases are caused by group A streptococcal infection?
      • Are group A strep infections contagious?
      • What is the contagious period for group A strep infections?
      • What is the incubation period for group A strep infections?
      • What are the symptoms and signs of GAS infections?
      • What is invasive group A streptococcal disease? Who is most at risk for getting invasive GAS disease?
      • What are the symptoms and signs of necrotizing fasciitis?
      • What are the signs and symptoms of toxic shock syndrome (TSS)?
      • How are group A streptococcal (GAS) infections diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for invasive group A streptococcal disease?
      • What specialists treat group A streptococcal infections?
      • What complications are seen with group A streptococcal infections?
      • Is it possible to prevent group A streptococcal infections?
      • What is the prognosis for group A streptococcal infections?
      • Where can people find more information about group A streptococcal infections?
    • Stress Stress occurs when forces from the outside world impinge on the individual. Stress is a normal part of life. However,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Stress Article
      • Stress facts
      • What is stress?
      • A brief history of stress
      • What are the signs and symptoms of poorly managed stress?
      • Who is most vulnerable to stress? What are the risk factors for stress?
      • Teen stress
      • What is the healthy response to stress?
      • How does the response to stress work?
      • What is the role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (grouping) in stress?
      • What is the role of the locus coeruleus in stress?
      • How do the connections in the brain work in stress?
      • What do we know about using (activating) and overusing our internal systems that respond to stress?
      • What are the effects of stress on medical and psychological conditions?
      • Conclusions about the effects of stress
      • What can people do for stress management? What are home remedies to combat stress symptoms?
      • What's in the future for stress?
    • Stroke (Signs, Symptoms, Warning Signs) A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain caused by either a blood clot (ischemic) or bleeding...learn more »
      In This Article
      Stroke (Signs, Symptoms, Warning Signs) Article
      • Stroke definition and facts
      • What is a stroke?
      • What is the NIH Stroke Scale?
      • What are the risk factors for stroke?
      • What are the warning signs and symptoms of a stroke?
      • What are the signs and symptoms of a stroke?
      • What is a transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
      • What are the types of stroke?
      • What causes a stroke?
      • What tests diagnose stroke?
      • What is the treatment for stroke?
      • Is recovery after a stroke possible?
      • What is stroke rehabilitation?
      • What is the prognosis for a person that suffers a stroke?
      • Which specialties of doctors treat stroke?
      • Can strokes be prevented?
    • Swine Flu Novel H1N1 influenza A virus infection (swine flu) is an infection that generally is transferred from an infected pig to a human,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Swine Flu Article
      • Swine flu (H1N1 and H3N2v influenza virus) facts
      • What is the swine flu?
      • How is swine flu transmitted? Is swine flu contagious?
      • What is the incubation period for swine flu?
      • What is the contagious period for swine flu?
      • How long does the swine flu last?
      • What causes swine flu?
      • Why is swine flu now infecting humans?
      • What are swine flu symptoms and signs?
      • What tests do health-care professionals use to diagnose swine flu?
      • What types of doctors treat swine flu?
      • What is the treatment for swine flu?
      • What is the history of swine flu in humans?
      • What are the risk factors for swine flu?
      • Can swine flu be prevented with a vaccine?
      • Can swine flu be prevented if the swine flu vaccine (or other flu strain vaccines) is not readily available?
      • Are there home remedies for swine flu?
      • Was swine flu (H1N1) a cause of an epidemic or pandemic in the 2009-2010 flu season?
      • What is the prognosis (outlook) and complications for patients who get swine flu?
      • Where can I find more information about swine flu (H1N1 and H3N2v)?
    • Temporomandibular Joint Syndrome (TMJ) Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) syndrome is a disorder that causes symptoms like pain, clicking, and popping of the jaw. TMJ is...learn more »
    • Tension Headache A tension headache s one of the most common types of headaches, and the exact cause is not known. Factors that may contribute to...learn more »
      In This Article
      Tension Headache Article
      • Tension headache facts
      • What is a tension headache?
      • What causes tension headaches?
      • What are the symptoms of tension headache?
      • How are tension headaches diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for tension headache?
      • Prescription medications for tension headaches
      • OTC drugs for tension headaches
      • Managing stress
      • Are there effective home remedies a cure for tension headache?
      • Can tension headaches be prevented?
    • Tetanus Tetanus is an often-fatal disease caused by nerve toxins produced by the common bacteria Clostridium tetani. In a seven-day...learn more »
      In This Article
      Tetanus Article
      • Tetanus facts
      • What is tetanus?
      • Where do tetanus bacteria grow in the body?
      • How does the tetanus toxin cause damage to the body?
      • What is the incubation period for tetanus?
      • What is the course of tetanus? What are tetanus symptoms and signs?
      • Is tetanus contagious?
      • What is the treatment for tetanus?
      • How is tetanus diagnosed, and what is the prognosis of tetanus?
      • Is it possible to prevent tetanus?
      • What is the schedule for active immunization (tetanus shots)?
      • What are the side effects of tetanus immunization?
      • What is passive immunization (by way of specialized immunoglobulin)?
    • Ticks Ticks are known transmitters of disease to humans and animals. Tick-borne diseases include Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted...learn more »
    • Toothache A toothache is a pain on or around a tooth. It may be caused by a variety of things from a cavity, abscess, or even sinusitis....learn more »
      In This Article
      Toothache Article
      • What is a toothache?
      • What causes a toothache?
      • What are toothache symptoms and signs?
      • How is a toothache diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for a toothache?
      • Are home remedies effective for a toothache?
      • How is a toothache treated during pregnancy?
      • What is the prognosis for a toothache?
      • Is it possible to prevent a toothache?
    • Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) Toxic shock syndrome is an infection that causes symptoms such as low blood pressure, fever, and a rash with peeling skin....learn more »
      In This Article
      Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) Article
      • Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) facts
      • What is toxic shock syndrome?
      • What causes toxic shock syndrome?
      • What are risk factors for toxic shock syndrome?
      • What are toxic shock syndrome symptoms and signs?
      • How do physicians diagnose toxic shock syndrome?
      • What is the treatment for toxic shock syndrome?
      • What is the prognosis of toxic shock syndrome?
      • Is it possible to prevent toxic shock syndrome?
    • Tularemia Tularemia (rabbit fever) is an infection caused by the Francisella tularensis bacteria. People can become infected with tularemia...learn more »
      In This Article
      Tularemia Article
      • Tularemia facts
      • What is tularemia?
      • What are the different types of tularemia?
      • What causes tularemia?
      • What are risk factors for tularemia?
      • What are tularemia symptoms and signs?
      • Is tularemia contagious, and what is the contagious period for tularemia?
      • What is the incubation period for tularemia?
      • What types of specialists treat tularemia?
      • How do health-care professionals diagnose tularemia?
      • What is the treatment for tularemia?
      • Are there home remedies for tularemia?
      • Is there a vaccine for tularemia?
      • What is the prognosis for tularemia?
      • Tularemia and bioterrorism
      • Where can people find more information about tularemia?
    • Typhoid Fever Typhoid fever is an illness caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. The illness is contracted by ingesting the bacteria in...learn more »
      In This Article
      Typhoid Fever Article
      • Typhoid fever facts
      • What is typhoid fever? What is the history of typhoid fever?
      • How do patients get typhoid fever?
      • How do the bacteria cause disease, and how is it diagnosed?
      • What are the symptoms of typhoid fever?
      • What is the treatment for typhoid fever, and what is the prognosis?
      • Can typhoid fever be prevented?
    • Typhus Typhus is a disease caused by Rickettsia bacteria. Symptoms and signs include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and...learn more »
      In This Article
      Typhus Article
      • Typhus facts
      • What is typhus? Are there different types of typhus?
      • What is the history of typhus?
      • What causes typhus? How is typhus transmitted?
      • What are typhus risk factors?
      • What are typhus symptoms and signs?
      • How is typhus diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for typhus?
      • What is the prognosis of typhus?
      • Can typhus be prevented?
      • Where can people get more information about typhus?
    • Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infection is the most common type of infection acquired by patients while hospitalized....learn more »
      In This Article
      Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) Article
      • Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) facts
      • What are vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)?
      • What causes a vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) infection?
      • Are VRE contagious?
      • How are vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) spread?
      • What are risk factors for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infections?
      • What is the incubation period and contagious period for VRE?
      • What are the signs and symptoms of a vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) infection?
      • What types of doctors treat VRE infections?
      • How do physicians diagnose vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) infections?
      • What is the treatment for a vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) infection?
      • What is the prognosis of a vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) infection?
      • What are the complications of VRE infections?
      • Is it possible to prevent vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infections?
      • What precautions should people take when tending to someone with a vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) infection?
      • What research is being done on vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)?
      • Where can people find more information on vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infections?
    • Vasculitis Vasculitis is a general term for a group of uncommon diseases which feature inflammation of the blood vessels. Each form of...learn more »
      In This Article
      Vasculitis Article
      • Vasculitis facts
      • What is vasculitis?
      • What causes vasculitis, and what are examples of diseases with vasculitis?
      • What are the symptoms of vasculitis?
      • How is vasculitis diagnosed?
      • How is vasculitis treated?
    • West Nile Virus West Nile virus (West Nile encephalitis) is a brain infection caused by a virus. People become infected with the virus after...learn more »
      In This Article
      West Nile Virus Article
      • West Nile virus facts
      • What is the history of West Nile virus?
      • Where did the West Nile virus come from?
      • How do people get West Nile virus?
      • How do mosquitoes get infected with the West Nile virus?
      • Is the West Nile virus contagious?
      • Besides mosquitoes, can other insects transmit the West Nile virus?
      • Are there other viruses like the West Nile virus?
      • What are West Nile virus infection symptoms and signs?
      • When is there an increased risk for West Nile virus infection?
      • Who is at risk for getting a West Nile virus infection?
      • What is the treatment for West Nile virus? Is it possible to prevent West Nile virus infection with a vaccine?
      • Is a woman's pregnancy at risk if she gets infected with the West Nile virus?
      • What can a community do to reduce the risk of an outbreak of the West Nile virus?
      • What can a person do to reduce the risk of becoming infected with the West Nile virus?
    • Yellow Fever Yellow fever is an infectious disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes. Side effects are rare with the yellow fever vaccine....learn more »
      In This Article
      Yellow Fever Article
      • Yellow fever facts
      • What is yellow fever? What is the history of yellow fever?
      • What causes yellow fever?
      • How is yellow fever transmitted?
      • What areas are high risk for contracting yellow fever?
      • What is the incubation period for yellow fever?
      • Is yellow fever contagious? How long is the contagious period for yellow fever?
      • What types of specialists treat yellow fever?
      • What are yellow fever symptoms and signs?
      • How do health-care professionals diagnose yellow fever?
      • What is the treatment for yellow fever?
      • How long does yellow fever last?
      • What is the prognosis for people with yellow fever?
      • Is it possible to prevent yellow fever?
      • What are the side effects of the yellow fever vaccine?
      • Where can people get more information on yellow fever?
    • Zika Virus (Zika Fever) The Zika virus is transmitted by the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. Symptoms and signs of a Zika virus infection include...learn more »
      In This Article
      Zika Virus (Zika Fever) Article
      • Zika virus facts
      • What is Zika virus?
      • What is the history of Zika virus outbreaks?
      • What are causes and risk factors of a Zika virus infection?
      • How is the Zika virus transmitted?
      • What is the incubation period for a Zika virus infection?
      • Is the Zika virus contagious?
      • What is the contagious period for a Zika virus infection?
      • What are symptoms and signs of a Zika virus infection?
      • What exams and tests do health-care professionals use to diagnose a Zika virus infection?
      • Can people who have returned from a country with active Zika outbreaks get tested for the infection?
      • Are there home remedies for a Zika virus infection?
      • What is the treatment for a Zika virus infection?
      • What specialists treat Zika infections?
      • What are the complications of Zika virus infections?
      • What are the risks of contracting a Zika virus infection during pregnancy?
      • What is the prognosis of a Zika virus infection?
      • Is it possible to prevent a Zika virus infection?
      • Is there a vaccine against Zika virus?
      • CDC advisory on travel to areas with Zika virus, including the U.S. (Florida)
Other Causes of Headache
  • Bacterial Infection (Inside or Outside of the Head)
  • Cluster Headache
  • Cold Drink or Food ("Brain Freeze")
  • Compression of Head (Hat, Helmet, etc.)
  • Hyperventilation
  • Illicit Drug Withdrawal
  • Intracranial Hemorrhage
  • Medications (Both Prescription and Nonprescription)
  • Sexual Activity
  • Trauma Injury to Head or Neck
  • Viral Infection (Inside or Outside of the Head)
Examples of Medications for Headache


Symptoms & Signs A-Z List