Headache

Headache Symptoms & Signs

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Symptoms & Signs

A headache (medically termed cephalgia) is a pain in the head. Headaches can be located anywhere in the head, including above the eyes or the ears, behind the head (occipital headache), the top of the head (coronal headache), or in the back of the upper neck. Headache, like chest pain or backache, has many causes.

All headaches are considered primary headaches or secondary headaches. Primary headaches are not associated with other diseases. Examples of primary headaches are migraine headaches, tension headaches, and cluster headaches. Secondary headaches are caused by other diseases. The associated disease may be minor or major.

Headaches can be associated with symptoms such as

There are many types of headaches. Tension headaches are the most common type of primary headache. As many as 90% of adults have tension headaches. Tension headaches are more common among women than men.

Migraine headaches are the second most common type of primary headache. An estimated 28 million people in the U.S. have migraine headaches. Migraine headaches affect children as well as adults. Before puberty, boys and girls are affected equally by migraine headaches, but after puberty more women than men have them. Migraine often goes undiagnosed or is misdiagnosed as tension or sinus headaches.

Cluster headaches are a rare but important type of primary headache, affecting mainly men. The average age of cluster headache sufferers is 28-30 years of age, although headaches may begin in childhood.

Secondary headaches may result from innumerable conditions, ranging from life-threatening ones such as brain tumors, strokes, meningitis, vasculitis, and subarachnoid hemorrhages to less serious but common conditions such as withdrawal from caffeine, sinus infection (sinusitis), and discontinuation of analgesics (painkilling medication). Pregnancy sometimes causes headaches. Many people suffer from "mixed" headache disorders in which tension headaches or secondary headaches may trigger migraine.

The treatment of the headache depends on the type and severity of the headache and on other factors, such as the age of the patient.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 3/20/2015

Health concern on your mind? Visit the Symptom Checker.

REFERENCE:

Longo, D.L., et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18th ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2011.

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      • What is the treatment for Lassa fever?
      • What are complications for Lassa fever?
      • What is the prognosis of Lassa fever?
      • Is it possible to prevent Lassa fever? Is there a vaccine for Lassa fever?
      • What research is being done on Lassa fever?
      • Where can people find more information on Lassa fever?
    • Legionnaires' Disease Legionellosis is an infection caused by the Legionella pneumophila bacterium. There are two forms of legionellosis: Pontiac fever...learn more »
      In This Article
      Legionnaires' Disease Article
      • Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever (legionellosis) facts
      • What causes legionellosis? What is the history of Legionnaires' disease?
      • How common is Legionnaires' disease?
      • What are the usual symptoms of Legionnaires' disease?
      • How is the diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease made?
      • Who develops Legionnaires' disease?
      • What is the treatment for Legionnaires' disease?
      • How is Legionnaires' disease spread?
      • Where is the Legionella bacterium found?
      • How can Legionnaires' disease be prevented?
    • Leptospirosis Leptospirosis is an infectious disease that causes symptoms such as fever, headache, and chills. Treatment for leptospirosis...learn more »
      In This Article
      Leptospirosis Article
      • Leptospirosis facts
      • What is leptospirosis?
      • What causes leptospirosis?
      • What are risk factors for leptospirosis?
      • What are leptospirosis symptoms and signs?
      • How do physicians diagnose leptospirosis?
      • What is the treatment for leptospirosis?
      • What is the prognosis of leptospirosis?
      • Is it possible to prevent leptospirosis?
    • Listeria Listeria is a type of bacteria that can cause food poisoning. Listeriosis symptoms include diarrhea, nausea and fever. Pregnant...learn more »
      In This Article
      Listeria Article
      • Listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes infection) facts
      • What is listeriosis? What causes listeriosis?
      • What are listeriosis symptoms and signs?
      • What are the risk factors for listeriosis?
      • How is listeriosis diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for listeriosis?
      • How does a person get listeriosis?
      • Can listeriosis be prevented?
      • What is the prognosis (outcome) for Listeria infections?
      • If a person has eaten recalled food potentially contaminated with Listeria, what should he or she do?
      • What is the government doing about listeriosis?
    • Lupus (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus or SLE) Systemic lupus erythematosus is a condition characterized by chronic inflammation of body tissues caused by autoimmune disease....learn more »
      In This Article
      Lupus (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus or SLE) Article
      • Systemic lupus erythematosus facts
      • What is systemic lupus erythematosus? What are the types of lupus?
      • What are risk factors and causes of systemic lupus erythematosus? Is lupus contagious? Is lupus hereditary?
      • What is drug-induced lupus?
      • What are lupus symptoms and signs?
      • How is systemic lupus erythematosus diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for systemic lupus?
      • Is there a systemic lupus erythematosus diet?
      • How can a lupus patient help prevent disease activity (flares)?
      • How can systemic lupus erythematosus affect pregnancy or the newborn?
      • What specialties of doctors treat lupus?
      • What is the prognosis of lupus? What does the future hold for people with systemic lupus?
      • Where can one get more information about systemic lupus erythematosus?
    • Malaria Malaria is a disease that is spread by the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. Malaria symptoms include fever, chills,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Malaria Article
      • Malaria facts
      • What is malaria?
      • Is malaria contagious?
      • What causes malaria?
      • What are risk factors for malaria? Is it possible to prevent malaria?
      • What are malaria symptoms and signs?
      • How do physicians diagnose malaria?
      • What is the treatment for malaria?
      • What is the prognosis of malaria?
      • Is there a malaria vaccine?
      • Can malaria reoccur after treatment?
    • Marburg Virus Disease Marburg virus disease is a zoonotic infection that produces symptoms such as chills, headaches, fever, and muscle aches. The...learn more »
      In This Article
      Marburg Virus Disease Article
      • Marburg virus disease facts
      • What is Marburg virus disease?
      • What causes Marburg disease?
      • What are the symptoms and signs of Marburg infection? What is the incubation period for a Marburg virus infection?
      • What are risk factors for getting Marburg infections?
      • How do health-care professionals diagnose Marburg viral infections?
      • What treatment is available for Marburg virus infections?
      • What specialists treat Marburg infections?
      • Is it possible to prevent Marburg virus infections?
      • What is the prognosis for a Marburg virus infection? What complications may occur with Marburg infections?
      • What research is ongoing about Marburg virus infections?
      • Why is Africa now seeing so many cases of what were relatively rare viral diseases like Ebola and Marburg virus infections?
    • MELAS Syndrome MELAS syndrome, a rare form of dementia, stands for Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes....learn more »
      In This Article
      MELAS Syndrome Article
      • What is MELAS?
      • What causes MELAS?
      • What are the symptoms of MELAS?
      • How is MELAS diagnosed?
      • When do people with MELAS develop symptoms?
      • How is MELAS treated?
      • Are there other mitochondrial diseases?
    • Meningitis Encephalitis is a brain inflammation that causes sudden fever, vomiting, headache, light sensitivity, stiff neck and back,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Meningitis Article
      • Encephalitis and meningitis facts
      • What is encephalitis?
      • What causes encephalitis?
      • What are encephalitis symptoms and signs?
      • Is encephalitis contagious?
      • Is it possible to prevent encephalitis? Is there an encphalitis vaccine?
      • What is meningitis?
      • What causes meningitis?
      • What are meningitis symptoms and signs?
      • What is encephalomyelitis?
      • How are encephalitis and meningitis diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment of encephalitis and meningitis?
      • What is the prognosis (outlook), and what are the complications for patients with encephalitis or meningitis?
      • Is meningitis contagious?
      • Is it possible to prevent meningitis? Is there a meningitis vaccine?
    • Meningococcemia Meningococcemia is a bloodstream infection caused by Neisseria meningitides. Meningococcemia symptoms include fever, headache,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Meningococcemia Article
      • Meningococcemia facts
      • What is meningococcemia?
      • What causes meningococcemia?
      • What are risk factors for meningococcemia?
      • What are symptoms and signs of meningococcemia?
      • How is meningococcemia diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for meningococcemia?
      • What is the prognosis of meningococcemia?
      • Is it possible to prevent meningococcemia?
      • Where can people find more information on meningococcemia?
    • Mental Health Mental health is an optimal way of thinking, relating to others, and feeling. All of the diagnosable mental disorders fall under...learn more »
      In This Article
      Mental Health Article
      • Mental health and mental illness facts
      • What is mental health?
      • What is mental illness?
      • What are common types of mental illness?
      • What are the causes and risk factors for mental illness?
      • What are symptoms and signs of mental illness?
      • How is mental illness diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for a mental health problem?
      • Can mental health disorders be prevented?
      • What is the prognosis for mental-health problems?
      • Where can people get support for mental health disorders?
      • Where can people get more information about mental illnesses?
    • Migraine Headache Migraine headaches are severe headaches that are accompanies to sensitivity to light, sounds, and smells. They are often...learn more »
      In This Article
      Migraine Headache Article
      • Migraine headache facts
      • What is a migraine?
      • What are migraine triggers?
      • What causes migraines?
      • What are the risk factors for migraine?
      • What are the signs and symptoms of migraines?
      • How are migraines diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for migraines?
      • Migraine medications
      • What self-care treatment and lifestyle changes work for migraines?
      • How are migraines managed during pregnancy?
      • How are migraines managed in children?
      • What is the prognosis for migraines?
      • Can migraines be prevented?
    • Mucormycosis Mucormycosis (zygomycosis) is a fungal infection caused by Zygomycetes. Symptoms and signs include fever, headache, coughing,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Mucormycosis Article
      • Mucormycosis (zygomycosis) facts
      • What is mucormycosis?
      • What causes mucormycosis?
      • What are risk factors for mucormycosis?
      • What are symptoms and signs of mucormycosis?
      • How is mucormycosis diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment of mucormycosis?
      • What are complications of mucormycosis?
      • What is the prognosis of mucormycosis?
      • Can mucormycosis be prevented?
      • What research is being done on mucormycosis?
      • Where can people find more information on mucormycosis?
    • Mumps Mumps is an acute viral illness caused by the mumps virus. Symptoms of mumps include fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness,...learn more »
    • Neck Pain (Cervical Pain) Neck pain (cervical pain) may be caused by any number of disorders and diseases. Tenderness is another symptom of neck pain....learn more »
      In This Article
      Neck Pain (Cervical Pain) Article
      • What is neck pain? What are causes and risk factors for neck pain?
      • What are other symptoms that are associated with neck pain?
      • What are the structures of the neck?
      • How do health-care professionals diagnose neck pain?
      • What is the treatment for neck pain? What are home remedies for neck pain?
      • What types of doctors treat neck pain?
      • What is the prognosis for neck pain?
      • Is it possible to prevent neck pain?
    • Norovirus Infection Norovirus infection causes stomach flu, or gastroenteritis. It's a very contagious illness with symptoms that include nausea and...learn more »
    • Paget's Disease Paget's disease is a chronic bone disorder due to irregular breakdown and formation of bone tissue. Symptoms of Paget's disease...learn more »
      In This Article
      Paget's Disease Article
      • Paget's disease facts
      • What is Paget's disease?
      • What causes Paget's disease?
      • What are Paget's disease symptoms?
      • How is Paget's disease diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for Paget's disease?
      • What is the prognosis for Paget's disease?
      • Who discovered Paget's disease?
      • Where can I find more information about Paget's disease?
    • Plague (Black Death) Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis. Transmission to humans occurs via fleas that have bitten...learn more »
      In This Article
      Plague (Black Death) Article
      • Plague (Black Death) facts
      • What is plague? What is the history of plague?
      • What causes plague?
      • What are risk factors for plague?
      • What is the incubation period for plague?
      • What are plague symptoms and signs? What are the different types of plague?
      • Is plague contagious? How is plague transmitted?
      • What is the contagious period for pneumonic plague?
      • How do physicians diagnose plague?
      • What is the treatment for plague?
      • What is the prognosis of plague?
      • Is it possible to prevent plague? Is there a plague vaccine?
      • Could plague be used as a biological weapon?
    • Polymyalgia Rheumatica Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a disorder of the muscles and joints that causes pain and stiffness in the arms, neck, shoulders,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Polymyalgia Rheumatica Article
      • Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis facts
      • What is polymyalgia rheumatica?
      • What causes polymyalgia rheumatica?
      • What are symptoms and signs of polymyalgia rheumatica?
      • How is polymyalgia rheumatica diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for polymyalgia rheumatica?
      • What is the prognosis (outlook) for patients with polymyalgia rheumatica?
      • Can polymyalgia be prevented?
      • What are complications of polymyalgia rheumatica?
      • What is giant cell arteritis?
      • What causes giant cell arteritis?
      • What are symptoms of giant cell arteritis?
      • How is giant cell arteritis diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for giant cell arteritis?
      • What is the prognosis for patients with giant cell arteritis?
      • Can giant cell arteritis be prevented?
      • What are complications of giant cell arteritis?
    • Rabies Rabies is a viral disease that is transmitted via the bite of an infected animal. Symptoms include fever, headaches, and...learn more »
      In This Article
      Rabies Article
      • Rabies facts
      • What is rabies?
      • What causes rabies?
      • What are risk factors for rabies?
      • What are rabies symptoms and signs?
      • How do physicians diagnose rabies?
      • What is the treatment for rabies?
      • What is the prognosis of rabies?
      • Is it possible to prevent rabies? Is there a rabies vaccine?
    • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a tick-borne disease that causes symptoms and signs such as fever, rash, headache, and muscle...learn more »
      In This Article
      Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Article
      • Rocky Mountain spotted fever facts
      • What is Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
      • Where do most cases of RMSF occur in the U.S.?
      • What causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
      • How is Rocky Mountain spotted fever transmitted?
      • What are Rocky Mountain spotted fever risk factors?
      • Is Rocky Mountain spotted fever contagious?
      • What are Rocky Mountain spotted fever symptoms and signs?
      • What is the incubation period for Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
      • How do health-care providers diagnose Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
      • What is the treatment for Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
      • What is the prognosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
      • What are the long-term effects of Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
      • Is there a vaccine for Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
      • Is it possible to prevent Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
    • Salmonella Salmonella infection (salmonellosis) is typically caused by the consumption of contaminated foods. Symptoms of salmonellosis...learn more »
      In This Article
      Salmonella Article
      • Salmonella food poisoning facts
      • What is Salmonella food poisoning?
      • What causes Salmonella outbreaks? How does Salmonella spread?
      • What are risk factors for Salmonella food poisoning?
      • What are symptoms and signs of Salmonella poisoning?
      • Is Salmonella contagious?
      • What is the incubation period for a Salmonella infection?
      • What is the contagious period for salmonellosis?
      • What kinds of doctors treat Salmonella food poisoning?
      • How do physicians diagnose Salmonella food poisoning?
      • What is the treatment for Salmonella food poisoning?
      • What are complications of Salmonella food poisoning?
      • What is the prognosis of Salmonella food poisoning?
      • Is it possible to prevent Salmonella food poisoning?
    • Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis, a disease resulting from chronic inflammation, causes small lumps (granulomas) to develop in a great range of body...learn more »
      In This Article
      Sarcoidosis Article
      • Sarcoidosis facts
      • What is sarcoidosis?
      • What are causes and risk factors of sarcoidosis?
      • What are signs and symptoms of sarcoidosis?
      • Who gets sarcoidosis?
      • What do we know about sarcoidosis? Is sarcoidosis contagious or hereditary?
      • What are some things we don't know about sarcoidosis?
      • What types of doctors treat sarcoidosis?
      • What tests do health-care professionals use to diagnose sarcoidosis?
      • What do laboratory tests for sarcoidosis show?
      • What is the treatment for sarcoidosis?
      • What is the prognosis of sarcoidosis?
      • Is it possible to prevent sarcoidosis?
      • Where can a person find more information on sarcoidosis?
    • Scarlet Fever (Scarlatina) Scarlet fever, a bacterial infection caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria, causes symptoms and signs such as fever, rash with...learn more »
      In This Article
      Scarlet Fever (Scarlatina) Article
      • Scarlet fever facts
      • What is scarlet fever?
      • What causes scarlet fever?
      • What is the incubation period for scarlet fever?
      • What are risk factors for scarlet fever?
      • What is the contagious period for scarlet fever?
      • What are scarlet fever symptoms and signs?
      • How do physicians diagnose scarlet fever?
      • What is the treatment for scarlet fever?
      • What are complications of scarlet fever?
      • What is the prognosis of scarlet fever? What are the long-term effects of scarlet fever?
      • Is it possible to prevent scarlet fever? Is there a scarlet fever vaccine?
    • Separation Anxiety Separation anxiety disorder is a common childhood anxiety disorder that has many causes. Infants, children, older kids and adults...learn more »
      In This Article
      Separation Anxiety Article
      • Separation anxiety disorder facts
      • What is separation anxiety disorder?
      • What are separation anxiety disorder symptoms and signs?
      • What are causes and risk factors for separation anxiety disorder?
      • How is separation anxiety disorder diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for separation anxiety disorder?
      • What happens if separation anxiety disorder is left untreated?
      • Is it possible to prevent separation anxiety disorder?
      • Where can I find more information on separation anxiety disorder?
    • Shingles Shingles, or herpes zoster, is a painful rash caused by the varicella zoster virus. Other shingles symptoms include headache,...learn more »
    • Sick Building Syndrome Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) or also referred to as sick building syndrome or environmental illness is the name given by...learn more »
      In This Article
      Sick Building Syndrome Article
      • Sick building syndrome facts
      • What is sick building syndrome?
      • Why is sick building syndrome controversial?
      • What causes sick building syndrome?
      • What are risk factors for sick building syndrome?
      • What are sick building syndrome symptoms and signs?
      • How is sick building syndrome diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for sick building syndrome?
      • What are complications of sick building syndrome?
      • What is the prognosis of sick building syndrome?
      • Is there a way to prevent sick building syndrome?
    • Sinus Infection (Sinusitis) Sinus infection (sinusitis) is caused by allergies, infection, and chemicals or other irritants of sinuses. Signs and symptoms...learn more »
    • STDs in Men Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections transmitted during sexual contact. They may be caused by viruses, bacteria,...learn more »
      In This Article
      STDs in Men Article
      • What are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)?
      • Who is at risk for STDs?
      • What causes STDs in men?
      • What are the signs and symptoms of STDs in men?
      • List of STDs in men
      • Chlamydia
      • Gonorrhea
      • Trichomoniasis
      • HIV
      • Genital herpes
      • Genital warts (HPV)
      • Hepatitis
      • Syphilis
      • How are STDs in men diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for STDs in men?
      • What is the prognosis for STDs in men?
      • Can STDs in men be prevented?
    • Strep Throat Strep throat (Group A, beta hemolytic, streptococcus pyogene, GAS) bacterial infection of the throat. Signs and symptoms of strep...learn more »
    • Streptococcal Infections Group A streptococcal infections are caused by group A streptococcus, a bacteria that causes a variety of health problems,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Streptococcal Infections Article
      • Group A streptococcal infections facts
      • What is group A Streptococcus (GAS)?
      • How are group A streptococcal (GAS) infections contracted?
      • What diseases are caused by group A streptococcal infection?
      • Are group A strep infections contagious?
      • What is the contagious period for group A strep infections?
      • What is the incubation period for group A strep infections?
      • What are the symptoms and signs of GAS infections?
      • What is invasive group A streptococcal disease? Who is most at risk for getting invasive GAS disease?
      • What are the symptoms and signs of necrotizing fasciitis?
      • What are the signs and symptoms of toxic shock syndrome (TSS)?
      • How are group A streptococcal (GAS) infections diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for invasive group A streptococcal disease?
      • What specialists treat group A streptococcal infections?
      • What complications are seen with group A streptococcal infections?
      • Is it possible to prevent group A streptococcal infections?
      • What is the prognosis for group A streptococcal infections?
      • Where can people find more information about group A streptococcal infections?
    • Stress Stress occurs when forces from the outside world impinge on the individual. Stress is a normal part of life. However,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Stress Article
      • Stress facts
      • What is stress?
      • A brief history of stress
      • What are the signs and symptoms of poorly managed stress?
      • Who is most vulnerable to stress?
      • Teen stress
      • What is the healthy response to stress?
      • How does the response to stress work?
      • What is the role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (grouping) in stress?
      • What is the role of the locus coeruleus in stress?
      • How do the connections in the brain work in stress?
      • What do we know about using (activating) and overusing our internal systems that respond to stress?
      • What are the effects of stress on medical and psychological conditions?
      • Conclusions about the effects of stress
      • What can people do for stress management?
      • What's in the future for stress?
    • Stroke A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain caused by either a blood clot (ischemic) or bleeding...learn more »
      In This Article
      Stroke Article
      • Stroke facts
      • What is a stroke?
      • What are the different types of stroke?
      • What causes a stroke?
      • What are the risk factors for stroke?
      • What is a transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
      • What are the warning signs of a stroke?
      • What are the symptoms of a stroke?
      • How is a stroke diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for stroke?
      • What is the prognosis for stroke?
      • Is recovery after a stroke possible?
      • What is stroke rehabilitation?
      • Can strokes be prevented?
    • Swine Flu Novel H1N1 influenza A virus infection (swine flu) is an infection that generally is transferred from an infected pig to a human,...learn more »
      In This Article
      Swine Flu Article
      • Swine flu (H1N1 and H3N2v influenza virus) facts
      • What is the swine flu?
      • How is swine flu transmitted? Is swine flu contagious?
      • What is the incubation period for swine flu?
      • What is the contagious period for swine flu?
      • How long does the swine flu last?
      • What causes swine flu?
      • Why is swine flu now infecting humans?
      • What are swine flu symptoms and signs?
      • What tests do health-care professionals use to diagnose swine flu?
      • What types of doctors treat swine flu?
      • What is the treatment for swine flu?
      • What is the history of swine flu in humans?
      • What are the risk factors for swine flu?
      • Can swine flu be prevented with a vaccine?
      • Can swine flu be prevented if the swine flu vaccine (or other flu strain vaccines) is not readily available?
      • Are there home remedies for swine flu?
      • Was swine flu (H1N1) a cause of an epidemic or pandemic in the 2009-2010 flu season?
      • What is the prognosis (outlook) and complications for patients who get swine flu?
      • Where can I find more information about swine flu (H1N1 and H3N2v)?
    • Temporomandibular Joint Syndrome (TMJ) Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) syndrome is a disorder that causes symptoms like pain, clicking, and popping of the jaw. TMJ is...learn more »
    • Tension Headache A tension headache s one of the most common types of headaches, and the exact cause is not known. Factors that may contribute to...learn more »
      In This Article
      Tension Headache Article
      • Tension headache facts
      • What is a tension headache?
      • What causes tension headaches?
      • What are the symptoms of tension headache?
      • How are tension headaches diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for tension headache?
      • Prescription medications for tension headaches
      • OTC drugs for tension headaches
      • Managing stress
      • Are there effective home remedies a cure for tension headache?
      • Can tension headaches be prevented?
    • Tetanus Tetanus is an often-fatal disease caused by nerve toxins produced by the common bacteria Clostridium tetani. In a seven-day...learn more »
      In This Article
      Tetanus Article
      • Tetanus facts
      • What is tetanus?
      • Where do tetanus bacteria grow in the body?
      • How does the tetanus toxin cause damage to the body?
      • What is the incubation period for tetanus?
      • What is the course of tetanus? What are tetanus symptoms and signs?
      • Is tetanus contagious?
      • What is the treatment for tetanus?
      • How is tetanus diagnosed, and what is the prognosis of tetanus?
      • Is it possible to prevent tetanus?
      • What is the schedule for active immunization (tetanus shots)?
      • What are the side effects of tetanus immunization?
      • What is passive immunization (by way of specialized immunoglobulin)?
    • Toothache A toothache is a pain on or around a tooth. It may be caused by a variety of things from a cavity, abscess, or even sinusitis....learn more »
      In This Article
      Toothache Article
      • What is a toothache?
      • What causes a toothache?
      • What are toothache symptoms and signs?
      • How is a toothache diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for a toothache?
      • Are home remedies effective for a toothache?
      • How is a toothache treated during pregnancy?
      • What is the prognosis for a toothache?
      • Is it possible to prevent a toothache?
    • Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) Toxic shock syndrome is an infection that causes symptoms such as low blood pressure, fever, and a rash with peeling skin....learn more »
      In This Article
      Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) Article
      • Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) facts
      • What is toxic shock syndrome?
      • What causes toxic shock syndrome?
      • What are risk factors for toxic shock syndrome?
      • What are toxic shock syndrome symptoms and signs?
      • How do physicians diagnose toxic shock syndrome?
      • What is the treatment for toxic shock syndrome?
      • What is the prognosis of toxic shock syndrome?
      • Is it possible to prevent toxic shock syndrome?
    • Typhoid Fever Typhoid fever is an illness caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. The illness is contracted by ingesting the bacteria in...learn more »
      In This Article
      Typhoid Fever Article
      • Typhoid fever facts
      • What is typhoid fever? What is the history of typhoid fever?
      • How do patients get typhoid fever?
      • How do the bacteria cause disease, and how is it diagnosed?
      • What are the symptoms of typhoid fever?
      • What is the treatment for typhoid fever, and what is the prognosis?
      • Can typhoid fever be prevented?
    • Typhus Typhus is a disease caused by Rickettsia bacteria. Symptoms and signs include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and...learn more »
      In This Article
      Typhus Article
      • Typhus facts
      • What is typhus? Are there different types of typhus?
      • What is the history of typhus?
      • What causes typhus? How is typhus transmitted?
      • What are typhus risk factors?
      • What are typhus symptoms and signs?
      • How is typhus diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for typhus?
      • What is the prognosis of typhus?
      • Can typhus be prevented?
      • Where can people get more information about typhus?
    • Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infection is the most common type of infection acquired by patients while hospitalized....learn more »
      In This Article
      Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) Article
      • Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) facts
      • What are vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)?
      • What causes a vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) infection?
      • What are risk factors for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infections?
      • How are vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) transmitted?
      • What are the symptoms and signs of a vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) infection?
      • How do physicians diagnose vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) infections?
      • What is the treatment for a vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) infection?
      • What is the prognosis of a vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) infection?
      • What are the complications of VRE infections?
      • Is it possible to prevent vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infections?
      • What precautions should people take when tending to someone with a vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) infection?
      • What research is being done on vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)?
      • Where can people find more information on vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infections?
    • Vasculitis Vasculitis is a general term for a group of uncommon diseases which feature inflammation of the blood vessels. Each form of...learn more »
      In This Article
      Vasculitis Article
      • Vasculitis facts
      • What is vasculitis?
      • What causes vasculitis, and what are examples of diseases with vasculitis?
      • What are the symptoms of vasculitis?
      • How is vasculitis diagnosed?
      • How is vasculitis treated?
    • West Nile Virus West Nile virus (West Nile encephalitis) is a brain infection caused by a virus. People become infected with the virus after...learn more »
      In This Article
      West Nile Virus Article
      • West Nile virus facts
      • What is the history of West Nile virus?
      • Where did the West Nile virus come from?
      • How do people get West Nile virus?
      • How do mosquitoes get infected with the West Nile virus?
      • Is the West Nile virus contagious?
      • Besides mosquitoes, can other insects transmit the West Nile virus?
      • Are there other viruses like the West Nile virus?
      • What are West Nile virus infection symptoms and signs?
      • When is there an increased risk for West Nile virus infection?
      • Who is at risk for getting a West Nile virus infection?
      • What is the treatment for West Nile virus? Is it possible to prevent West Nile virus infection with a vaccine?
      • Is a woman's pregnancy at risk if she gets infected with the West Nile virus?
      • What can a community do to reduce the risk of an outbreak of the West Nile virus?
      • What can a person do to reduce the risk of becoming infected with the West Nile virus?
    • Yellow Fever Yellow fever is an infectious disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes. Side effects are rare with the yellow fever vaccine....learn more »
      In This Article
      Yellow Fever Article
      • Yellow fever facts
      • What is yellow fever? What is the history of yellow fever?
      • What causes yellow fever?
      • How is yellow fever transmitted?
      • What areas are high risk for contracting yellow fever?
      • What is the incubation period for yellow fever?
      • Is yellow fever contagious? How long is the contagious period for yellow fever?
      • What are yellow fever symptoms and signs?
      • How is yellow fever diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for yellow fever?
      • How long does yellow fever last?
      • What is the prognosis for people with yellow fever?
      • Is it possible to prevent yellow fever?
      • What are the side effects of the yellow fever vaccine?
      • Where can people get more information on yellow fever?
    • Zika Virus The Zika virus is transmitted by the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. Symptoms and signs of a Zika virus infection include...learn more »
      In This Article
      Zika Virus Article
      • Zika virus facts
      • What is Zika virus?
      • What is the history of Zika virus outbreaks?
      • What are causes and risk factors of a Zika virus infection?
      • How is the Zika virus transmitted?
      • What is the incubation period for a Zika virus infection?
      • Is the Zika virus contagious?
      • What are symptoms and signs of a Zika virus infection?
      • What exams and tests do health-care professionals use to diagnose a Zika virus infection?
      • Are there home remedies for a Zika virus infection?
      • What is the treatment for a Zika virus infection?
      • What specialists treat Zika infections?
      • What are the complications of Zika virus infections?
      • What are the risks of contracting a Zika virus infection during pregnancy?
      • What is the prognosis of a Zika virus infection?
      • Is it possible to prevent a Zika virus infection?
      • Is there a vaccine against Zika virus?
      • CDC advisory on travel to areas with Zika virus
Other Causes of Headache
  • Bacterial Infection (Inside or Outside of the Head)
  • Cluster Headache
  • Cold Drink or Food ("Brain Freeze")
  • Compression of Head (Hat, Helmet, etc.)
  • Hyperventilation
  • Illicit Drug Withdrawal
  • Intracranial Hemorrhage
  • Medications (Both Prescription and Nonprescription)
  • Sexual Activity
  • Trauma Injury to Head or Neck
  • Viral Infection (Inside or Outside of the Head)
Examples of Medications for Headache


Symptoms & Signs A-Z List