- Cancer 101: Cancer Explained
- Guide to Breast Cancer
- Skin Cancer Risks
- Patient Comments: Head and Neck Cancer - Causes
- Patient Comments: Head and Neck Cancer - Symptoms
- Patient Comments: Head and Neck Cancer - Diagnosis
- Patient Comments: Head and Neck Cancer - Treatment
- Find a local Oncologist in your town
- Head and neck cancer facts*
- What is cancer?
- What kinds of cancers are considered cancers of the head and neck?
- How common are head and neck cancers?
- What causes head and neck cancers?
- What are common symptoms of head and neck cancers?
- How are head and neck cancers diagnosed?
- What health professionals treat patients with head and neck cancers?
- How are head and neck cancers treated?
- Are clinical trials (research studies) available for patients with head and neck cancers?
- What rehabilitation or support options are available for patients with head and neck cancers?
- Is follow-up treatment necessary? What does it involve?
- What can people who have had head and neck cancer do to reduce the risk of developing a second primary (new) cancer?
What are common symptoms of head and neck cancers?
Symptoms of several head and neck cancer sites include a lump or sore that does not heal, a sore throat that does not go away, difficulty swallowing, and a change or hoarseness in the voice. Other symptoms may include the following:
- Oral cavity. A white or red patch on the gums, tongue, or lining of the mouth; a swelling of the jaw that causes dentures to fit poorly or become uncomfortable; and unusual bleeding or pain in the mouth.
- Nasal cavity and sinuses. Sinuses that are blocked and do not clear, chronic sinus infections that do not respond to treatment with antibiotics, bleeding through the nose, frequent headaches, swelling or other trouble with the eyes, pain in the upper teeth, or problems with dentures.
- Salivary glands. Swelling under the chin or around the jawbone; numbness or paralysis of the muscles in the face; or pain that does not go away in the face, chin, or neck.
- Oropharynx and hypopharynx. Ear pain.
- Nasopharynx. Trouble breathing or speaking, frequent headaches, pain or ringing in the ears, or trouble hearing.
- Larynx. Pain when swallowing, or ear pain.
- Metastatic squamous neck cancer. Pain in the neck or throat that does not go away.
These symptoms may be caused by cancer or by other, less serious conditions. It is important to check with a doctor or dentist about any of these symptoms.
How are head and neck cancers diagnosed?
To find the cause of symptoms, a doctor evaluates a person's medical history, performs a physical examination, and orders diagnostic tests. The exams and tests conducted may vary depending on the symptoms. A biopsy may be recommended and performed based upon the findings of the earlier tests. A biopsu is a limited surgical procedure which remeoves a small piece of tissue. Examination of a sample of tissue under the microscope is always necessary to make a diagnosis of cancer.
Some exams and tests that may be useful are described below:
- Physical examination may include visual inspection of the oral and nasal cavities, neck, throat, and tongue using a small mirror and/or lights. The doctor may also feel for lumps on the neck, lips, gums, and cheeks.
- Endoscopy is the use of a thin, lighted tube called an endoscope to examine areas inside the body. The type of endoscope the doctor uses depends on the area being examined. For example, a laryngoscope is inserted through the mouth to view the larynx; an esophagoscope is inserted through the mouth to examine the esophagus; and a nasopharyngoscope is inserted through the nose so the doctor can see the nasal cavity and nasopharynx.
- Laboratory tests examine samples of blood, urine, or other substances from the body.
- X-rays create images of areas inside the head and neck on film.
- CT (or CAT) scan is a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the head and neck created by a computer linked to an X-ray machine.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (or MRI) uses a powerful magnet linked to a computer to create detailed pictures of areas inside the head and neck.
- PET scan uses sugar that is modified in a specific way so it is absorbed by cancer calls and appears as dark areas on the scan.
If the diagnosis is cancer, the doctor will want to learn the stage (or extent) of disease. Staging is a careful attempt to find out whether the cancer has spread and, if so, to which parts of the body. Staging may involve an examination under anesthesia (in the operating room), X-rays and other imaging procedures, and laboratory tests. Knowing the stage of the disease helps the doctor plan treatment.