Head and Neck Cancer (cont.)
What are common symptoms of head and neck cancers?
Symptoms of several head and neck cancer sites include a lump or sore that
does not heal, a sore throat that does not go away, difficulty swallowing, and a
change or hoarseness in the voice. Other symptoms may include the following:
- Oral cavity. A white or red patch on the gums, tongue, or lining of the
mouth; a swelling of the jaw that causes dentures to fit poorly or become
uncomfortable; and unusual bleeding or pain in the mouth.
- Nasal cavity and sinuses. Sinuses that are blocked and do not clear,
chronic sinus infections that do not respond to treatment with antibiotics,
bleeding through the nose, frequent headaches, swelling or other trouble with
the eyes, pain in the upper teeth, or problems with dentures.
- Salivary glands. Swelling under the chin or around the jawbone; numbness or
paralysis of the muscles in the face; or pain that does not go away in the face,
chin, or neck.
- Oropharynx and hypopharynx. Ear pain.
- Nasopharynx. Trouble breathing or speaking, frequent headaches, pain or
ringing in the ears, or trouble hearing.
- Larynx. Pain when swallowing, or ear pain.
- Metastatic squamous neck cancer. Pain in the neck or throat that does not
These symptoms may be caused by cancer or by other, less serious conditions.
It is important to check with a doctor or dentist about any of these symptoms.
How are head and neck cancers diagnosed?
To find the cause of symptoms, a doctor evaluates a person's medical history,
performs a physical examination, and orders diagnostic tests. The exams and
tests conducted may vary depending on the symptoms. Examination of a sample of
tissue under the microscope is always necessary to confirm a diagnosis of
Some exams and tests that may be useful are described below:
- Physical examination may include visual inspection of the oral and nasal
cavities, neck, throat, and tongue using a small mirror and/or lights. The
doctor may also feel for lumps on the neck, lips, gums, and cheeks.
- Endoscopy is the use of a thin, lighted tube called an endoscope to examine
areas inside the body. The type of endoscope the doctor uses depends on the area
being examined. For example, a laryngoscope is inserted through the mouth to
view the larynx; an esophagoscope is inserted through the mouth to examine the
esophagus; and a nasopharyngoscope is inserted through the nose so the doctor
can see the nasal cavity and nasopharynx.
- Laboratory tests examine samples of blood, urine, or other substances from
- X-rays create images of areas inside the head and neck on film.
- CT (or CAT) scan is a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the head
and neck created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (or MRI) uses a powerful magnet linked to a
computer to create detailed pictures of areas inside the head and neck.
- PET scan uses sugar that is modified in a specific way so it is absorbed by
cancer calls and appears as dark areas on the scan.
- Biopsy is the removal of tissue. A pathologist studies the tissue under a
microscope to make a diagnosis. A biopsy is the only sure way to tell whether a
person has cancer.
If the diagnosis is cancer, the doctor will want to learn the stage (or
extent) of disease. Staging is a careful attempt to find out whether the cancer
has spread and, if so, to which parts of the body. Staging may involve an
examination under anesthesia (in the operating room), x-rays and other imaging
procedures, and laboratory tests. Knowing the stage of the disease helps the
doctor plan treatment.
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Head and Neck Cancer - Causes
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Head and Neck Cancer - Symptoms
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Head and Neck Cancer - Diagnosis
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Head and Neck Cancer - Treatment
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Head and Neck Cancer - Causes
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