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- Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) facts
- What is hantavirus? What is hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)?
- What is the history of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome?
- What causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome?
- What are risk factors for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome?
- Is hantavirus contagious?
- How long is hantavirus contagious?
- What is the incubation period for hantavirus?
- What are hantavirus pulmonary syndrome symptoms and signs?
- How is hantavirus pulmonary syndrome diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome?
- What specialties of doctors treat hantavirus?
- What are complications of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome?
- What is the prognosis of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome?
- Is it possible to prevent hantavirus pulmonary syndrome?
- Where can people get more information on hantavirus pulmonary syndrome?
How is hantavirus pulmonary syndrome diagnosed?
Currently, there are no readily available tests to diagnose HPS or even hantavirus infection in the early stage of the infection or disease mainly because the early symptoms are so nonspecific and the disease of HPS so infrequent. There has been no pressing need or use for a test. However, if the more severe HPS disease develops, the disease is presumptively diagnosed by the patient's association with an area where rodents proliferate or areas where HPS is known to occur (for example, the Four Corners area and more recently the Yosemite National Park recreational area, especially certain tent-cabins rented to the public). Sequential chest X-rays may show worsening changes and fluid buildup. Definitive diagnosis is usually done by the CDC labs using special immunological tests that can distinguish hantavirus from Ebola, Marburg, and other viruses.
What is the treatment for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome?
At this time, there is no definitive treatment for HPS other than early recognition of HPS and subsequent medical support (usually consisting of symptomatic medical treatment and respiratory support or mechanical ventilation). The CDC suggests that early treatment in an intensive-care unit may allow the patient to survive severe HPS. Experimentally, physicians have administered the antiviral medication ribavirin (Rebetol, Copegus), but there are no clear data currently that establish that the drug is effective against HPS; however, its use against HFRS early in the disease suggests ribavirin can decrease illness and deaths. There is no vaccine available to protect against any hantaviruses to date.