Dr. Mersch received his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of California, San Diego, and prior to entering the University Of Southern California School Of Medicine, was a graduate student (attaining PhD candidate status) in Experimental Pathology at USC. He attended internship and residency at Children's Hospital Los Angeles.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Hand foot and mouth disease (HFM) is a viral infection characterized by fever
and a typical rash most frequently seen on the palms of the hands, soles of the
feet, and inside the mouth. It should not be confused with foot (hoof) and mouth
disease that affects cattle, sheep, and swine.
What are the symptoms and signs of hand foot and mouth disease?
HFM is most commonly an illness of the spring and fall seasons. Initial symptoms of mild fever (101
F-102 F) and malaise are followed within
one or two days by a characteristic rash. Small (2 mm-3 mm) red spots that quickly develop into small blisters
(vesicles) appear on the palms, soles, and oral cavity. The gums, tongue, and inner cheek are most commonly involved. The foot lesions may also involve the lower calf region and rarely may appear on the buttocks. Oral lesions are commonly associated with a sore throat and diminished appetite.
What causes hand foot and mouth disease?
HFM is caused by several members of the enterovirus family of viruses. The most common cause is Coxsackie virus A-16; less frequently
enterovirus 71 is the infectious agent. The clinical manifestations of routine HFM are the same regardless of the responsible virus. However, patients infected with
enterovirus 71 are more likely to experience rare complications (for
example, viral meningitis or cardiac muscle involvement).
Picture of characteristic rash and blisters of hand foot and mouth disease
Picture of characteristic mouth sores of hand foot and mouth disease
Commonly HFM is an illness of children less than 10 years of age; adults generally were exposed during childhood and maintain a natural immunity. Information regarding fetal exposure to HFM during is limited. No solid evidence exists that maternal enterovirus infection is associated with complications such as spontaneous abortion or congenital defects. However, should a baby be born to a mother with active HFM symptoms, the risk of neonatal infection is high. Typically, such newborns have a mild illness. Rarely, overwhelming infection involving vital organs such as liver, heart, and brain can be lethal.
Children's health, or pediatrics,
focuses on the well-being of children from conception through adolescence. It is
vitally concerned with all aspects of children's growth and development and with
the unique opportunit"...