Gilbert Syndrome

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What is Gilbert syndrome?

Gilbert Syndrome is a common, harmless genetic condition in which a liver enzyme essential to the disposal of bilirubin (the chemical that results from the normal breakdown of hemoglobin from red blood cells) is abnormal. The condition has also been referred to as constitutional hepatic dysfunction and familial nonhemolytic jaundice. The enzyme abnormality in Gilbert syndrome results in mild elevations of bilirubin in the blood, particularly after starvation or dehydration.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 12/20/2013

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Red blood cell picture

What is hemoglobin?

Hemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs.

Hemoglobin is made up of four protein molecules (globulin chains) that are connected together. The normal adult hemoglobin (Hbg) molecule contains two alpha-globulin chains and two beta-globulin chains. In fetuses and infants, beta chains are not common and the hemoglobin molecule is made up of two alpha chains and two gamma chains. As the infant grows, the gamma chains are gradually replaced by beta chains, forming the adult hemoglobin structure.

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