What is rubella (German measles)?
An acute viral disease that causes fever and rash.
What are the symptoms of rubella?
Rash and fever for two to three days (mild disease in children and young adults).
What are the complications of rubella?
Birth defects if acquired by a pregnant woman: deafness, cataracts, heart defects, mental retardation, and liver and spleen damage (at least a 20% chance of damage to the fetus if a woman is infected early in pregnancy).
How is rubella spread from person to person?
Spread by contact with an infected person, through coughing and sneezing.
What is the rubella vaccine?
Rubella vaccine (contained in MMR vaccine) can prevent this disease.
Does my child need this vaccine?
Children should get 2 doses of MMR vaccine:
- The first dose at 12-15 months of age
- The second dose at 4-6 years of age
These are the recommended ages. But children can get the second dose at any age, as long as it is at least 28 days after the first dose.
As an adult, do I need this vaccine?
You do NOT need the measles, mumps, rubella vaccine (MMR) if:
- You had blood tests that show you are immune to measles, mumps, and rubella.
- You are a man born before 1957.
- You are a woman born before 1957 who is sure she is not having more children, has already had rubella vaccine, or has had a positive rubella test.
- You already had two doses of MMR or one dose of MMR plus a second dose of measles vaccine.
- You already had one dose of MMR and are not at high risk of measles or mumps exposure.
You SHOULD get the measles vaccine if you are not among the categories listed above, and
- You are a college student, trade school student, or other student beyond high school.
- You work in a hospital or other medical facility.
- You travel internationally, or are a passenger on a cruise ship.
- You are a woman of childbearing age.
Medically reviewed by Margaret Walsh, MD; American Board of Pediatrics
Last update: 4/29/2011
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 4/8/2014
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