- Heartburn Slideshow: Foods to Eat, Foods to Avoid
- Digestive Myths Slideshow: Common Misconceptions
- GERD Quiz: Test Your Digestive Diseases IQ
- Patient Comments: GERD in Infants and Children - Symptoms
- Patient Comments: GERD in Infants and Children - Treatments
- Patient Comments: GERD in Infants and Children - Experience
- Find a local Pediatric Gastroenterology in your town
- What are GER and GERD in infants and children?
- What causes GER and GERD in infants and children?
- What are the symptoms of GER and GERD in infants and children?
- How are GER and GERD in infants and children diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for GER in infants?
- How are GER and GERD treated in infants and children?
- What is the prognosis for GER and GERD in infants and children?
What are the symptoms of GER and GERD in infants and children?
Infants with GER generally have no symptoms other than the obvious reflux of fluid out the mouth. As noted previously, they do not appear to have any discomfort associated with their reflux.
Infants and children with GERD may have multiple symptoms including:
- frequent fussiness during feeding or thereafter,
- frequent or recurrent cough,
- recurrent rejection of the breast or bottle which may lead to poor weight gain,
- recurrent pneumonia, and
- descriptions of "heartburn," "chest pain" or upper midline abdominal pain.
How are GER and GERD in infants and children diagnosed?
The diagnosis of GER is based upon characteristic historical facts reported by the infant's parents coupled with an elimination of pathological conditions by a normal physical exam. It is very rare to need laboratory studies to establish or support the diagnosis.
The diagnosis of GERD is often accomplished by the pediatrician taking a thorough history supported by a complete physical examination enabling the elimination of other conditions that might cause similar symptoms. While rare, studies may be necessary to either establish/support the diagnosis of GERD or to determine the extent of damage caused by the repeated reflux events.
These studies may include:
- Barium swallow/upper GI series: This X-ray study involves drinking a material (barium) that allows visualization of the act of swallowing from mouth into the stomach by the propulsive motions of the esophagus and then emptying of the barium from the stomach into the upper part of the intestinal tract. This test is designed to confirm normal anatomy and function of the areas studies.
- pH probe studies: This test involves passage of a thin, flexible tube through the nose and into the lower regions of the esophagus. The goal is to document the frequency of reflux of stomach acid contents over a prolonged period (usually 24 hours).
- Endoscopy: Performed by a pediatric gastroenterologist, this procedure involves the passage of an endoscope (a thin, flexible tube with a light source and camera at the leading end) from the throat, through the esophagus and into the stomach to directly visualize damage caused by GERD as a result of stomach acid erosion.
- Gastric emptying study: This study involves drinking a mildly radioactive dye and monitoring the speed of passage from the stomach into the upper intestinal tract. Delay in emptying of stomach contents may predispose and aggravate GERD symptoms.