Gardner Syndrome (cont.)
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How common is familial adenomatous polyposis?
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The reported incidence of familial adenomatous polyposis varies from 1 in 7,000 to 1 in 22,000 individuals.
What genes are related to familial adenomatous polyposis?
Mutations in the APC gene cause both classic and attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis. These mutations affect the ability of the cell to maintain normal growth and function. Cell overgrowth resulting from mutations in the APC gene leads to the colon polyps seen in familial adenomatous polyposis. Although most people with mutations in the APC gene will develop colorectal cancer, the number of polyps and the time frame in which they become malignant depend on the location of the mutation in the gene.
Mutations in the MUTYH gene cause autosomal recessive familial adenomatous polyposis (also called MYH-associated polyposis). Mutations in this gene prevent cells from correcting mistakes that are made when DNA is copied (DNA replication) in preparation for cell division. As these mistakes build up in a person's DNA, the likelihood of cell overgrowth increases, leading to colon polyps and the possibility of colon cancer.
How do people inherit familial adenomatous polyposis?
Familial adenomatous polyposis can have different inheritance patterns.
When familial adenomatous polyposis results from mutations in the APC gene, it is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. In most cases, an affected person has one parent with the condition.
When familial adenomatous polyposis results from mutations in the MUTYH gene, it is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. Most often, the parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.
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