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- Fungal arthritis facts
- What is fungal arthritis?
- What causes fungal arthritis?
- What are risks for developing fungal arthritis?
- What are fungal arthritis symptoms and signs?
- How is fungal arthritis diagnosed?
- How is fungal arthritis treated?
- What is the prognosis of fungal arthritis?
- Can fungal arthritis be prevented?
What are risks for developing fungal arthritis?
Fungal arthritis in people with normal immune systems is rare. One risk for developing fungal arthritis in such people is the accidental injection of medications that are contaminated with fungus microbes in the vials used. This, in fact, was the situation when contaminated vials of medications produced by a compounding pharmacy (New England Compounding Center) caused a multistate outbreak of rare fungal meningitis and fungal arthritis in September 2012.
People with abnormally suppressed immune systems are at risk for fungal infections, including fungal arthritis. This includes people with severely low white blood counts (neutropenia), HIV infection, injection drug abusers, and those taking chronic cortisone medication.
What are fungal arthritis symptoms and signs?
Symptoms of fungal arthritis include pain, heat, swelling, warmth, redness, and loss of range of motion of the affected joint. The most common joint to develop fungal arthritis is the knee joint. Fever may or may not be present.
Symptoms of fungal arthritis typically become manifest weeks to months after the initial infection of the joint.
How is fungal arthritis diagnosed?
Fungal arthritis is considered when a patient whose immune system is compromised develops inflammation of a joint. Blood tests can include testing the blood for the white blood count, inflammation markers (sedimentation rate, or ESR, and C-reactive protein, or CRP), and cultures of the blood. Plain X-ray images, CAT scanning, and/or MRI scanning can be used to determine the character and extent of joint damage. Ultimately, joint fluid is aspirated from the joint with a needle and syringe and this fluid is analyzed in the laboratory to culture the precise fungal organism and establish the diagnosis.