- First Aid Essentials Slideshow
- Take the Trauma and First Aid Quiz
- First Aid Sprains & Strains Slideshow Pictures
- Patient Comments: Frostbite - Experience
- Patient Comments: Frostbite - Recovery Time
- Frostbite and cold weather-related injuries facts
- Frequent Urination Overview
- Introduction to frostbite and cold weather-related injuries
- What type of injuries can be caused by cold weather?
- What are the signs and symptoms of frostbite?
- Common Causes of Frequent Urination
- What are cold weather-related injuries without tissue freezing?
- Trench foot
- Frostbite: Cold weather-related injuries with tissue freezing
- Frequent Urination Symptoms
- What does frostbite look like (frostbite pictures)?
- How should frostbite and other cold weather-related injuries be treated?
- When to Seek Medical Care
- Exams and Tests
- What is the recovery time for a frostbite injury?
- When should a person seek medical care for a cold weather-related injury?
- Who is most likely to get a cold weather-related injury and what can be done to prevent it?
- Self-Care at Home
- Medical Treatment
- For More Information
Frostbite: Cold weather-related injuries with tissue freezing
Frostbite occurs when there is freezing of body tissue, and it is the most serious of the cold weather-related injuries. Frostbite usually affects the hands, feet, nose, ears, and cheeks, though other areas of the body may also be affected. This type of injury results from decreased blood flow and heat delivery to body tissues resulting in damaging ice crystal formation, which ultimately leads to cell death. Upon rewarming of the affected tissue, vascular damage and complex cellular metabolic abnormalities lead to tissue death.
Damage to tissue is most pronounced when there is prolonged cold weather exposure, the affected area slowly freezes, and the subsequent rewarming process is slow. Repeated thawing and refreezing of the affected tissue is particularly damaging, and should always be avoided.
Frostbite injuries can be classified as either superficial or deep, depending on the tissue depth of injury.
- Superficial frostbite injuries involve the skin and subcutaneous tissues.
- Deep frostbite injuries extend beyond the subcutaneous tissues and involve the tendons, muscles, nerves, and even bone.
Superficial frostbite injuries have a better prognosis than deep frostbite injuries.
Frequent Urination Symptoms
Even though there are numerous causes for frequent urination, the symptoms are generally the same. Below are some terms that are used to describe symptoms that may accompany frequent urination.
- Frequency: urinating more than eight times during the day or more than once overnight
- Hesitancy: incomplete evacuation of the bladder during each episode of urination. There may be a sudden stoppage of the urine flow due to spasms in the bladder or urethra or there may be difficulty starting the flow of urine.
- Urgency: the uncomfortable feeling of pressure in the bladder that makes you feel you have to go "right now"
- Urinary incontinence: the inability to control the flow of urine, leading to either constant or intermittent accidental leakage
- Dysuria: pain or burning sensation during or immediately following urination. This may be a sign of a urinary tract infection.
- Hematuria: Blood in the urine can be small amounts, clots, or very bloody. This will usually cause the urine to appear darker in color.
- Nocturia: This is having to wake up to urinate. It can also be associated with nighttime urinary incontinence. (In children, this includes wetting the bed.)
- Polyuria: frequent daytime urination
- Dribbling: After finishing urination, urine continues to drip or dribble out.
- Straining: having to squeeze or bear down to initiate the urine stream
What does frostbite look like (frostbite pictures)?
The appearance of frostbite may gradually change over time; the extent of the change depends on how severely the tissue is damaged. Figure 1 shows a hand with severe frostbite changes at the tips of the fingers and thumb (dark to black-appearing tissue) that gradually decreases in severity on the digits.
Figure 1. Frostbite on digits and thumb