Dr. Cole is board certified in dermatology. He obtained his BA degree in bacteriology, his MA degree in microbiology, and his MD at the University of California, Los Angeles. He trained in dermatology at the University of Oregon, where he completed his residency.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Freckles are usually friendly, small tan or light brown spots on sun-exposed skin.
Freckles can be mistaken for moles and other skin growths.
Freckles themselves are quite harmless and rarely
develop into skin cancer.
Freckles can be confused with more
serious skin problems.
can at times masquerade or hide as a freckle.
Uncertain colored or pigmented spots should be examined by your physician or dermatologist.
Effective treatments are available to help lighten or eliminate bothersome
What are freckles?
Freckles are flat, tanned circular spots that typically are the size of the head of a common nail. The spots are multiple and may develop randomly on the skin, especially after repeated exposure to sunlight. These are particularly common in people of fair complexion on upper-body skin areas like the cheeks, nose, arms, and upper shoulders. They may appear
on people as young as 1 or 2 years of age.
Most freckles on a person's skin are usually uniform in color. On different people, freckles may vary somewhat in color -- they may be reddish, yellow, tan, light brown, brown, or black -- but they are basically slightly darker than the surrounding skin. They tend to become darker and more apparent after sun exposure and lighten in the winter months. Freckles are due to an increase in the amount of dark pigment called melanin and are not due to an increase in the total number of pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. The word
freckle comes from the Middle English freken, which, in turn, came
from the Old Norse freknur, meaning "freckled." (Some speakers of Old English and Old Norse must have had a tendency to developing freckles.)
Medical Author: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
K. Hecht, PhD
Most people are understandably confused when it comes to
choosing a sunscreen
because of the baffling array of available choices. Common questions about
How high should the SPF be?
Should it block UVA or UVB?
Does it matter whether it is a gel, cream, or spray?
Should it be water-resistant or waterproof?
SPF stands for sun protection
The SPF numbers on a product can range from as low as 2 to as high as 60. These
numbers refer to the product's ability to screen or block out the sun's burning
rays. The SPF rating is calculated by comparing the amount of time needed to
produce sunburnon protected skin to
the amount of time needed to cause a sunburn on unprotected skin. The higher the
SPF, the greater the sun protection.
Photosensitivity (or sun sensitivity) is inflammation of the skin induced by
the combination of sunlight and certain medications or substances. This causes
redness (erythema) of the skin and may look simila"...