Diabetes and Foot Problems

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Diabetes and foot problems facts

  • Two main conditions, peripheral artery disease (PAD) and peripheral neuropathy, are responsible for the increased risk of foot problems in people with diabetes.
  • People with diabetes have an increased risk of ulcers and damage to the feet.
  • A number of different kinds of foot problems can occur in people with diabetes. These include bunions, corns, calluses, hammertoes, fungal infections, dryness of the skin, and ingrown toenails.
  • Treatment depends on the exact type of foot problem. Surgery may be required for some cases.
  • Gangrene (dry gangrene) is tissue death due to absence of blood circulation. It can be life-threatening if bacterial infection develops (wet gangrene).
  • Many diabetes-related foot problems can be prevented by good control of blood sugar levels combined with appropriate care of the feet.

How can diabetes cause foot problems?

Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes cause damage to blood vessels and peripheral nerves that can result in problems in the legs and feet. Two main conditions, 1) peripheral artery disease (PAD), and 2) peripheral neuropathy are responsible for the increased risk of foot problems in people with diabetes.

  • Peripheral artery disease (PAD), sometimes referred to as peripheral vascular disease (PVD), means that there is narrowing or occlusion by atherosclerotic plaques of arteries outside of the heart and brain. Diabetes is a known risk factor for developing peripheral artery disease. In addition to pain in the calves during exercise (intermittent claudication), the signs and symptoms of peripheral artery disease relate to a decreased delivery of oxygen to the lower legs and feet. In severe cases, the lack of oxygen delivery to tissues can result in ulcers and even gangrene (tissue death).
  • Peripheral neuropathy refers to damage to the peripheral nerves directly as a result of diabetes. Symptoms of peripheral neuropathy include decreased sensation in the nerves of the legs and feet, making it difficult to perceive injuries due to lack of feeling. It can also cause the muscles of the feet to work improperly, leading to misalignment of the foot that can put pressure on certain areas of the foot.
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 4/5/2013

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