Food Poisoning (cont.)

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What are the types of food poisoning?

Most frequently, food poisoning may be due to infection caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, and infrequently, prions. More than 200 infectious causes exist. Sometimes it is not the bacteria that causes the problem, but rather the toxin that bacteria produce in the food before it is eaten. This is the case with Staphylococcal food poisoning and with botulism.

Other illnesses may involve chemical toxins that are produced in certain foods that are poorly cooked or stored. For example, scombroid poisoning occurs due to a large release of histamine chemical from the fish when it is eaten. It causes facial swelling, itching, and difficulty breathing and swallowing - just like an allergic reaction. Scombroid poisoning is sometimes confused with a shellfish allergy.

Some "food poisonings" may not be due to toxins or chemicals in food but to infectious agents that happen to contaminate the food. E. coli O157:H7 (hemorrhagic E. coli) usually occurs when contaminated food is eaten, but it also can spread from contaminated drinking water, a contaminated swimming pool, or passed from child to child in a daycare center.

Listeria is a type of bacteria that has caused the two most deadly outbreaks of food poisoning in United States history. In 1985, an outbreak in California was traced to eating a type of fresh cheese, and in 2011, Listeria food poisoning was traced to a cantaloupe farm and processing operation in Colorado. It is most often associated with eating soft cheeses, raw milk, contaminated fruits, vegetables, poultry, and meats. Newborns, the elderly and others with compromised immune systems are at higher risk of becoming ill with Listeria infections. Pregnant women are also at higher risk of contracting Listeria infections and are recommended to avoid soft cheeses like brie, camembert, and blue (cream cheese is safe) to avoid infection and to prevent transmission to the fetus.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 8/31/2015

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