Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
The H1N1 vaccine was a pandemic vaccine designed to provide immunity against the novel H1N1 flu outbreak in 2009, initially referred to as swine flu. The H1N1 vaccine was initially given to those at highest risk for complications of this illness (children, pregnant women, caregivers of children). Even though the virus proved not to be as deadly as expected, researchers suggest the H1N1 vaccine was effective in reducing the effects of this flu virus.
The U.S. Public Health Emergency for 2009 H1N1 influenza expired on June 23, 2010, but it is likely that the 2009 H1N1 virus will continue to spread among people as does a regular seasonal influenza virus.
What is the best way to locate a flu shot clinic?
Flu shots can be obtained through your health care professional's office, at community health departments, and at many pharmacies. Additionally, many employers and schools host flu shot clinics. Some employers may offer the vaccine free of charge. Your health care professional's office should be able to provide you with information about flu shot clinics available in your community.
information above was adapted in part from recommendations of the U.S. Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), "Key Facts About Seasonal Influenza," 2009, and "Questions and Answers: 2009 H1N1 Influenza Vaccine," 2009.
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Rhorer, J., Ambrose, C.S., Dickinson, S., Hamilton, H., Oleka, N.A., Malinoski, F.J., Wittes, J. "Efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine in children: A meta-analysis of nine randomized clinical trials." Vaccine 27.7 Feb. 11, 2009: 1101-10.
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United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Key Facts About Seasonal Flu Vaccine." Sept. 21, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/keyfacts.htm>.
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United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Seasonal Influenza (Flu)." Aug. 19, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/children.htm>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Seasonal Influenza (Flu)." Sept. 7, 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Selecting the Viruses in the Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine." Mar. 9, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/Flu/professionals/vaccination/virusqa.htm>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "2009 H1N1 Vaccine Safety Summary." Dec. 4, 2009. <http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/in_the_news/vaccine_safety_summary.htm>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Who Should Get Vaccinated Against Influenza." Sept. 9, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/whoshouldvax.htm>.