Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Related Diseases & Conditions

Medical tests and procedures are used to diagnose and treat a wide variety of conditions. Our doctors have compiled a list of ailments related to the topic of Flexible Sigmoidoscopy that may be used to diagnose or monitor the status of the diseases and conditions listed below.

  • Colon Cancer Colon cancer is a malignancy that arises from the inner lining of the colon. Most, if not all, of these cancers develop from...learn more »
    In This Article
    Colon Cancer Article
    • Colon cancer facts
    • What is cancer?
    • What is cancer of the colon and rectum?
    • What are the causes of colon cancer?
    • What are the symptoms of colon cancer?
    • What tests can be done to detect colon cancer?
    • How can colon cancer be prevented?
    • What are the treatments and survival for colon cancer?
    • What is the follow-up care for colon cancer?
    • What does the future hold for patients with colorectal cancer?
  • Abdominal Pain (Causes, Remedies, Treatment) Abdominal pain can have many causes. Some of the less serious causes include bloating, gas, colitis, endometriosis, food...learn more »
    In This Article
    Abdominal Pain (Causes, Remedies, Treatment) Article
    • Definition of abdominal pain
    • What are the ways to describe abdominal pain?
    • What are the causes of abdominal pain?
    • What are the less serious causes of abdominal pain?
    • What are more serious causes of abdominal pain?
    • When should I call my doctor about abdominal pain?
    • What are the methods used to diagnose abdominal pain?
    • What are the home remedies for certain causes of abdominal pain?
    • What medications can be used to treat certain causes of abdominal pain?
    • What lifestyle choices can I make to prevent abdominal pain?
  • Anal Itching Anal itching is the irritation of the skin at the exit of the rectum, known as the anus, accompanied by the desire to scratch. ...learn more »
    In This Article
    Anal Itching Article
    • What is anal itching?
    • What causes anal itching?
    • How is anal itching treated?
    • Local anesthetics
    • Vasoconstrictors
    • Protectants
    • Astringents
    • Antiseptics
    • Keratolytics
    • Analgesics
    • Corticosteroids
    • What if anal itching persists?
  • Diverticulitis (Diverticulosis, Diverticular Disease) Diverticulitis is a condition in which diverticuli in the colon rupture. The rupture results in infection in the tissues that...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diverticulitis (Diverticulosis, Diverticular Disease) Article
    • Diverticulosis and diverticulitis facts
    • What is diverticulosis?
    • What is diverticulitis?
    • What are diverticulitis symptoms?
    • What causes diverticula and how do diverticula form?
    • What are the more serious complications of diverticulitis?
    • How are the diagnosis of diverticulitis and diverticulosis made?
    • What is the treatment for diverticulitis and diverticulosis?
    • Medical treatment of diverticulitis and diverticulosis
    • Surgical treatment for diverticulitis
    • What can be done to prevent diverticulitis and diverticulosis?
  • Constipation Constipation is defined medically as fewer than three stools per week and severe constipation as less than one stool per week....learn more »
    In This Article
    Constipation Article
    • Constipation facts
    • What is constipation?
    • What causes constipation?
    • Medications that cause constipation
    • Other causes of constipation
    • How is constipation evaluated (diagnosed)?
    • What treatments are available for constipation?
    • Home remedies and OTC medications to treat constipation
    • Prescription drugs to treat constipation
    • Other treatments for constipation
    • What is the approach to the evaluation and treatment of constipation?
    • When should I seek medical care for chronic constipation?
    • What's new in the treatment of constipation?
  • Hemorrhoids Hemorrhoids (piles) are swollen veins in the rectum and anus. Causes include pregnancy, obesity, diarrhea, low-fiber diet, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hemorrhoids Article
    • Definition of hemorrhoid
    • What causes hemorrhoids?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a hemorrhoid?
    • What does a hemorrhoid look like?
    • How is the diagnosis of hemorrhoids made?
    • How are hemorrhoids treated?
    • OTC medications and home remedies for hemorrhoids
    • Non-surgical approaches
    • Hemorrhoid surgery
    • What is the prognosis for hemorrhoids?
  • Diarrhea Diarrhea is a change is the frequency and looseness of bowel movements. Cramping, abdominal pain, and the sensation of rectal...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diarrhea Article
    • Diarrhea facts
    • What is diarrhea?
    • How is diarrhea defined?
    • Why does diarrhea develop?
    • What symptoms are associated with diarrhea?
    • What are common causes of acute diarrhea?
    • Viral gastroenteritis
    • Food poisoning
    • Traveler's diarrhea
    • Bacterial enterocolitis
    • Parasites
    • Drugs
    • What are common causes of chronic diarrhea?
    • What are the complications of diarrhea?
    • When should the doctor be called for diarrhea?
    • What tests are useful in the evaluation of diarrhea?
    • How can dehydration be prevented and treated?
    • What is the treatment for diarrhea?
    • When should antibiotics be used for diarrhea?
  • Anal Fissure An anal fissure is a small tear or cut in the skin lining of the anus. Pain and/or rectal bleeding during bowel movements are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Anal Fissure Article
    • What are anal fissures?
    • What causes anal fissures?
    • What are the symptoms of anal fissures?
    • How are anal fissures diagnosed and evaluated?
    • How are anal fissures treated?
    • Anal Fissures At A Glance
  • Clostridium Difficile Colitis (Antibiotic-Associated Colitis, C. difficile colitis) Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a bacterium, and is one of the most common causes of infection of the colon. C. difficile...learn more »
    In This Article
    Clostridium Difficile Colitis (Antibiotic-Associated Colitis, C. difficile colitis) Article
    • Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) facts
    • What is Clostridium difficile (C. difficile?)
    • What Clostridium difficile colitis?
    • How does Clostridium difficile cause colitis?
    • What are the symptoms of Clostridium difficile colitis?
    • Which antibiotics cause Clostridium difficile colitis?
    • How is Clostridium difficile colitis diagnosed?
    • How is Clostridium difficile colitis treated?
    • Why are there relapses of Clostridium difficile colitis?
    • How are relapses of Clostridium difficile colitis treated?
    • What is new in Clostridium difficile?
  • Ulcerative Colitis Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammation of the colon. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding....learn more »
    In This Article
    Ulcerative Colitis Article
    • Ulcerative colitis facts
    • What is ulcerative colitis?
    • What causes ulcerative colitis?
    • What are the symptoms of ulcerative colitis?
    • How is the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis made?
    • What are the complications of ulcerative colitis?
    • What are the treatments for ulcerative colitis?
    • What are ulcerative colitis medications?
    • 5-ASA Compounds
    • Systemic corticosteroids (including side effects)
    • Golimumab (Simponi)
    • What are immunomodulator medications?
    • Summary of medication treatment
    • Surgery for ulcerative colitis
    • Treatment by disease severity and location (based on ACG Practice Guidelines)
    • Are there any special dietary requirements for persons with ulcerative colitis?
    • What research is being done regarding ulcerative colitis?
  • Anal Cancer Anal cancer, cancer located at the end of the large intestine, has symptoms that include anal or rectal bleeding, anal pain or...learn more »
    In This Article
    Anal Cancer Article
    • Anal cancer facts*
    • What is anal cancer?
    • What are the risk factors for anal cancer?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of anal cancer?
    • How is anal cancer diagnosed?
    • What affects the prognosis?
    • How is the staging of anal cancer determined?
    • What is recurrent anal cancer?
    • What is the treatment for anal cancer?
    • How does staging affect the treatment of anal cancer?
    • What are the treatment options for recurrent anal cancer?
    • Where can I find more information about anal cancer?
  • Colon Polyps Colon are common growths on the inner lining of the colon. Colon polyps may become cancerous. There are several different types...learn more »
    In This Article
    Colon Polyps Article
    • Colon polyp facts
    • What are colon polyps?
    • How common are colon polyps?
    • Why are colon polyps important?
    • Are all colon polyps the same?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of colon polyps?
    • How are colon polyps diagnosed?
    • How are colon polyps treated?
    • How is screening for colon polyps done?
    • How should patients with colon polyps be followed?
    • Are all colon cancers associated with polyps?
    • Can colon polyps be prevented?
    • How is genetic testing used in patients with colon polyps?
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a GI (gastrointestinal disorder) with symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, increased flatus,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Article
    • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) definition
    • What causes irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • What are the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • How is the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) made?
    • What are the treatments for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • What medications are used to treat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • What about IBS and diet?
    • Is irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) related to small bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)?
    • What is the prognosis for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
  • Blood in the Stool (Rectal Bleeding) Rectal bleeding (blood in the stool) can be caused by a variety of benign conditions such as hemorrhoids, anal fissures,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Blood in the Stool (Rectal Bleeding) Article
    • Definition of blood in the stool (rectal bleeding)
    • What symptoms are associated with rectal bleeding?
    • What are some of the causes of blood in the stool (rectal bleeding)?
    • Hemorrhoids
    • Anal fissures
    • Diverticulitis, IBD, AVM, ischemic colitis, cancer, intussusception
    • Bacterial or viral infections
    • Ulcers or gastritis
    • Esophageal bleeding
    • Other causes
    • When should I call a doctor for blood in the stool (rectal bleeding)?
    • How is the cause of blood in the stool (rectal bleeding) diagnosed?
    • What are the treatments for blood in the stool (rectal bleeding)?
    • Can blood in the stool (rectal bleeding) be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis of blood in the stool (rectal bleeding)?
  • Microscopic Colitis (Lymphocytic Colitis and Collagenous Colitis) Microscopic colitis (lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis) is a disease of inflammation of the colon. Microscopic colitis...learn more »
    In This Article
    Microscopic Colitis (Lymphocytic Colitis and Collagenous Colitis) Article
    • What is colitis?
    • What diseases are not colitis?
    • What is microscopic colitis?
    • What causes microscopic colitis?
    • What are the symptoms of microscopic colitis?
    • How common is microscopic colitis and who is at risk?
    • When should I seek medical care for microscopic colitis?
    • How is microscopic colitis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for microscopic colitis?
    • What is the prognosis of microscopic colitis?
    • Can microscopic colitis be prevented?
  • Hirschsprung's Disease Hirschsprung's disease (Hirschsprung), is a disease of the nerve cells of of the large intestine. The primary symptom of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hirschsprung's Disease Article
    • What is Hirschsprung's disease?
    • What are the large intestine, colon, rectum, and anus?
    • Why does Hirschsprung's disease cause constipation?
    • What causes Hirschsprung's disease?
    • What are the symptoms of Hirschsprung's disease?
    • How is Hirschsprung's disease treated?
    • What will my child's life be like after surgery?
    • If I have more children, will they also have Hirschsprung's disease?
    • Hirschsprung's Disease At A Glance
  • Melanosis Coli Melanosis coli is a condition that is often associated with prolonged laxative use....learn more »
    In This Article
    Melanosis Coli Article
    • What is melanosis coli?
    • What are the symptoms of melanosis coli?
    • What causes melanosis coli?
    • How is melanosis coli diagnosed?
    • What is the prognosis (outcome) of melanosis coli?
  • Colon Cancer Prevention Colo-rectal cancer is both curable and preventable if it is detected early and completely removed before the cancerous cells...learn more »
    In This Article
    Colon Cancer Prevention Article
    • Introduction to colon cancer prevention
    • What measures to prevent colo-rectal cancer have proven effectiveness and long term safety?
    • What measures to prevent colo-rectal cancer probably are effective but may have long term adverse side effects?
    • What measures to prevent colo-rectal cancer probably are effective and safe?
    • What prevention measures have been found to be ineffective?
    • What about genetic testing for colon cancer?
    • Who should consider genetic counseling and testing?
    • Why is genetic counseling and testing important in hereditary colon cancer syndromes?
    • What can be done now to prevent colorectal cancer?
  • The Digestion Process (Organs and Functions) Digestion is the complex process of turning food you eat into the energy you need to survive. The digestive process also involves...learn more »
    In This Article
    The Digestion Process (Organs and Functions) Article
    • Digestion definition
    • What is digestion?
    • The mouth
    • The pharynx and esophagus
    • The stomach and small intestine
    • The colon, rectum, and anus
    • Three accessory digestive organs (pancreas, liver, gallbladder)
  • Disease Prevention in Men Disease prevention in men includes routine screening tests that are part of basic prevention medicine. Take an active role in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Disease Prevention in Men Article
    • Disease prevention in men introduction
    • High blood pressure (hypertension)
    • Hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, dyslipidemia
    • Type II diabetes mellitus
    • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    • Cancer of colon and rectum /polyps of colon and rectum
    • Prostate cancer
    • Glaucoma
    • Melanoma and other skin cancers
    • Bladder cancer
  • Disease Prevention in Women Disease prevention in women includes screening tests that are a basic part of prevention medicine. All screening tests are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Disease Prevention in Women Article
    • Disease prevention in women overview
    • Osteoporosis
    • Breast cancer
    • High blood pressure (hypertension)
    • Cancer of the cervix
    • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    • Hypercholesterolemia (hyperlipidemia, dyslipidemia)
    • Type II diabetes mellitus
    • Cancer of colon and rectum / polyps of colon and rectum
    • Bladder cancer
    • Glaucoma
    • Melanoma and other skin cancers

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