Table of Contents
- Fainting (syncope) facts
- Introduction to fainting (syncope)
- What causes fainting (syncope)?
- Heart rhythm changes
- Heart structural conditions
- Heart valve conditions
- Sudden cardiac death
- Postural hypotension
- Vasovagal syncope
- Orthostatic hypotension
- Vertebrobasilar artery disease
- Electrolyte imbalance
- Other medications and drugs
- What are the signs and symptoms of fainting (syncope)?
- How is fainting (syncope) diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for fainting (syncope)?
- Can fainting (syncope) be prevented?
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Heart structural conditions
Structural problems with the heart can cause fainting or syncope, either because there is a problem with the ability of the heart to adequately pump blood or because of valve problems. When the heart muscle becomes damaged or inflamed it may not have the ability to pump blood to meet the body's needs. Examples include a heart attack (myocardial infarction) or cardiomyopathy, in which the heart muscle weakens.
Heart valve conditions
Abnormalities with the heart valves can also cause fainting or syncope. The valves allow blood to go in the proper direction when the heart pumps. Valve diseases may include abnormal narrowing (stenosis) or leakage (insufficiency or regurgitation). Either situation can cause issues with maintaining adequate blood flow to the body.
Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.
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