Exercise and Activity Related Diseases & Conditions

Medical conditions are often related to other diseases and conditions. Our doctors have compiled a list of ailments related to the topic of Exercise and Activity. These conditions may be a cause or symptom of Exercise and Activity or be a condition for which you may be at increased risk.

  • Staph Infection (Staphylococcus Aureus) Staphylococcus or Staph is a group of bacteria that can cause a multitude of diseases. Staph infections can cause illness...learn more »
    In This Article
    Staph Infection (Staphylococcus Aureus) Article
    • Staph infection facts
    • What is Staphylococcus?
    • Who is at risk for Staph infections?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of a Staph infection?
    • What types of diseases are caused by Staph?
    • How are Staph infections diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for Staph infections?
    • What is antibiotic-resistant Staph aureus?
    • What are complications of Staph infections?
    • Can Staph infections be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for Staph infections?
  • Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension) Low blood pressure, also referred to as hypotension, is blood pressure that is so low that it causes symptoms or signs due to the...learn more »
  • Hip Bursitis Bursitis of the hip results when the fluid-filled sac (bursa) near the hip becomes inflamed due to localized soft tissue trauma...learn more »
  • Muscle Spasms Muscle spasms are involuntary muscle contractions that come on suddenly and are usually quite painful. Dehydration, doing...learn more »
  • Jock Itch Jock itch is an itchy red rash that appears in the groin area. The rash may be caused by a bacterial or fungal infection. People...learn more »
    In This Article
    Jock Itch Article
    • Jock itch facts
    • What is jock itch? What does jock itch look like?
    • What causes jock itch?
    • Who gets jock itch?
    • What are jock itch symptoms and signs?
    • Does jock itch affect the entire body?
    • How is jock itch diagnosed?
    • Is jock itch curable? Is jock itch contagious?
    • What are possible complications of jock itch?
    • What is the treatment for jock itch?
    • What home remedy can I use for jock itch?
    • What holistic jock itch treatments are available?
    • How do I treat fungal jock itch?
    • How do I treat bacterial jock itch?
    • How is itching from jock itch treated?
    • Why is my groin still discolored?
    • What is the best drug for jock itch?
    • What is the prognosis with jock itch?
    • When should I call my doctor about jock itch?
    • How do I prevent jock itch?
  • Torn Meniscus A torn meniscus (knee cartilage) may be caused by suddenly stopping, sharply twisting, or deep squatting or kneeling when lifting...learn more »
  • Athlete's Foot Athlete's foot (tinea pedis) is a skin infection caused by the ringworm fungus. Symptoms include itching, burning, cracking,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Athlete's Foot Article
    • Athlete's foot facts
    • What is athlete's foot?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of athlete's foot?
    • What does athlete's foot look like?
    • Is athlete's foot contagious?
    • What else causes foot rashes?
    • What is the treatment for athlete's foot?
    • What home remedy can I use for athlete's foot?
    • How can I treat athlete's foot in pregnancy?
    • When should I seek medical care?
    • What are possible complications of athlete's foot?
    • What kind of doctor treats athlete's foot?
    • How can I prevent future athlete's foot infections?
  • Menopause Menopause is the time in a woman's life when menstrual periods permanently stop, also called the "change of life." Menopause...learn more »
    In This Article
    Menopause Article
    • Menopause facts
    • What is menopause?
    • At what age does a woman typically reach menopause?
    • What conditions can affect the timing of menopause?
    • What are the symptoms of menopause?
    • What are the complications and effects of menopause on chronic medical conditions?
    • Are hormone levels or other blood tests helpful in detecting menopause?
    • What are the treatment options for the symptoms of menopause?
    • Hormone therapy for menopause
    • Other medical therapies for menopause
    • Alternative therapies for menopause
    • Non-hormone therapies for menopause
    • Lifestyle factors in managing menopause symptoms
  • Rosacea Rosacea is a skin disease that causes redness of the forehead, chin, and lower half of the nose. In addition to inflammation of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Rosacea Article
    • Rosacea facts
    • What is rosacea? Is rosacea contagious?
    • Is rosacea like acne?
    • What are causes and risk factors of rosacea?
    • What are rosacea symptoms and signs?
    • How is rosacea diagnosed?
    • What happens to the nose and the eyes?
    • How is rosacea cured?
    • What about using acne medicine?
    • What is the treatment for rosacea?
    • What should be avoided? What foods are good for rosacea?
    • What natural remedies can help rosacea?
    • Does rosacea get worse with age?
    • How should I care for the skin of my face?
    • How are the telangiectasias (the red lines) treated?
    • How is a rhinophyma (the W.C. Fields nose) treated?
    • What effect may rosacea have on my life?
    • Where can people get more information about rosacea?
  • Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2) Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2) Article
    • Diabetes facts
    • What is diabetes?
    • What is the impact of diabetes?
    • What causes diabetes?
    • What are the different types of diabetes?
    • Type 1 diabetes
    • Type 2 diabetes
    • Other types of diabetes
    • What are diabetes symptoms?
    • How is diabetes diagnosed?
    • Why is blood sugar checked at home?
    • What are the acute complications of diabetes?
    • What are the chronic complications of diabetes?
    • What can be done to slow diabetes complications?
  • Foot Pain Foot pain may be caused by injuries (sprains, strains, bruises, and fractures), diseases (diabetes, Hansen disease, and gout),...learn more »
    In This Article
    Foot Pain Article
    • How is the foot designed?
    • What causes foot pain?
    • What other symptoms and signs may accompany foot pain?
    • When should I seek medical treatment for foot pain?
    • How is foot pain diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for foot pain?
    • What follow-up care is needed after foot pain is treated?
    • How can foot pain be prevented?
    • Foot Pain At A Glance
  • High Blood Pressure High blood pressure is defined as a pressure of 140/90 mmHg or higher in the arteries. Genetic factors, high salt intake, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    High Blood Pressure Article
    • What is high blood pressure?
    • What causes high blood pressure?
    • How is blood pressure measured?
    • What do blood pressure readings mean?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of high blood pressure?
    • How is high blood pressure diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for high blood pressure?
    • What are the potential risks and complications of untreated high blood pressure?
    • What dietary strategies can help lower high blood pressure?
    • How does exercise help lower high blood pressure?
    • Is complementary and alternative medicine effective for treating high blood pressure?
  • Shin Splints Shin splints result from inflammation from injury to the tendon and adjacent tissues in the front of the outer leg. Shin splints...learn more »
    In This Article
    Shin Splints Article
    • Shin splints facts
    • What are shin splints?
    • What are risk factors for shin splints?
    • What are shin splints symptoms?
    • What causes shin splints?
    • How are shin splints diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for shin splints?
    • What is the multifaceted relative rest approach?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for shin splints?
    • Can shin splints be prevented?
  • Anxiety Anxiety is a feeling of apprehension and fear characterized by physical symptoms. Anxiety disorders are serious medical illnesses...learn more »
    In This Article
    Anxiety Article
    • Generalized anxiety disorder facts
    • What is generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)?
    • What are the different types of anxiety?
    • How common is generalized anxiety disorder?
    • What are causes and risk factors for anxiety?
    • What are anxiety symptoms and signs?
    • How is generalized anxiety disorder diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for anxiety?
    • What are the side effects of anxiety medications?
    • What are complications of generalized anxiety disorder?
    • Is it possible to prevent anxiety?
    • What is the prognosis of generalized anxiety disorder?
    • Are there support groups for those with generalized anxiety disorder?
    • Where can people find additional information on generalized anxiety disorder?
  • Hernia A hernia occurs when an organ or piece of tissue protrudes from the space in which it is normally contained. Symptoms of a hernia...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hernia Article
    • What is an abdominal hernia?
    • What are the different types of abdominal hernias?
    • What causes an abdominal hernia?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of an abdominal hernia?
    • How are abdominal hernias diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for an abdominal hernia?
    • What non-surgical treatments are available for an abdominal hernia?
    • What is the prognosis for an abdominal hernia?
    • Can an abdominal hernia be prevented?
  • Insulin Resistance Insulin resistance is the diminished ability of cells to respond to the action of insulin in transporting glucose (sugar) from...learn more »
    In This Article
    Insulin Resistance Article
    • Insulin resistance facts
    • What is insulin resistance?
    • What causes insulin resistance?
    • What is the relationship between insulin resistance and diabetes?
    • What medical conditions are associated with insulin resistance?
    • Who is at risk for insulin resistance?
    • How is insulin resistance diagnosed?
    • How is insulin resistance managed?
    • Lifestyle changes (diet, weight loss, exercise)
    • Medications
    • What's new in insulin resistance?
  • Peripheral Vascular Disease Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) refers to diseases of the blood vessels (arteries and veins) located outside the heart and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Peripheral Vascular Disease Article
    • Peripheral vascular disease facts
    • What is peripheral vascular disease?
    • What is atherosclerosis?
    • How does atherosclerosis cause disease?
    • What are potential complications of peripheral artery disease?
    • What are the other causes of peripheral vascular diseases?
    • Who is at risk for peripheral artery disease?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of peripheral artery disease?
    • How is peripheral artery disease diagnosed?
    • What are the treatments for peripheral artery disease?
    • Lifestyle changes
    • Supervised exercise
    • Medications
    • Angioplasty
    • Surgery
  • Panic Attacks Panic attacks are sudden feelings of terror that strike without warning. These episodes can occur at any time, even during sleep....learn more »
    In This Article
    Panic Attacks Article
    • Panic attack facts
    • What are panic attacks?
    • What are panic attack symptoms and signs in adults, teenagers, and children?
    • Are panic attacks serious?
    • What are causes and risk factors for panic attacks?
    • How is panic disorder diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for panic attacks? What medications treat panic attacks?
    • What are complications of untreated panic attacks?
    • What is the prognosis for panic disorder?
    • How are panic attacks prevented?
  • Sleep Apnea Sleep apnea is defined as a reduction or cessation of breathing during sleep. The three types of sleep apnea are central apnea,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Sleep Apnea Article
    • Sleep apnea facts
    • What is sleep apnea?
    • What are the types of sleep apnea?
    • What is central sleep apnea and what causes it?
    • What is obstructive sleep apnea and what causes it?
    • How common is obstructive sleep apnea?
    • What are obstructive sleep apnea symptoms?
    • What are some of the complications of sleep apnea?
    • How is obstructive sleep apnea diagnosed and evaluated?
    • What are the nonsurgical treatments for obstructive sleep apnea?
    • What are the surgical treatments for obstructive sleep apnea?
    • Why is it important to treat obstructive sleep apnea?
  • Pityriasis Rosea Pityriasis rosea is a rash that begins with a large pink patch with well-defined scaly borders on the back, chest, or neck. In...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pityriasis Rosea Article
    • Pityriasis rosea facts
    • What is pityriasis rosea?
    • Who gets pityriasis rosea?
    • What causes pityriasis rosea?
    • What are pityriasis rosea symptoms and signs?
    • How is pityriasis rosea diagnosed?
    • What are some common misdiagnoses of pityriasis rosea?
    • What is the treatment for pityriasis rosea?
    • What home remedies can I use for pityriasis rosea?
    • Can pityriasis rosea be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for pityriasis rosea?
    • Where can I find more information and facts about pityriasis rosea?
  • Concussion Concussion is a short-lived loss of brain function that is due to head trauma. There are two types of concussion, simple and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Concussion Article
    • What is concussion and what causes concussion?
    • What are the types of concussion?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of concussion?
    • How is concussion diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for concussion?
    • How can concussion be prevented?
    • What is the future of concussion?
  • Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain condition characterized by symptoms such as fatigue, sleep disturbances, and tender points. Stress...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fibromyalgia Article
    • Fibromyalgia facts
    • What is fibromyalgia?
    • What causes fibromyalgia?
    • Is fibromyalgia hereditary?
    • What are risk factors for fibromyalgia?
    • What are fibromyalgia symptoms and signs?
    • How do physicians diagnose fibromyalgia?
    • What is the treatment for fibromyalgia?
    • Are there any home remedies for fibromyalgia?
    • Does diet or exercise affect fibromyalgia?
    • What is the prognosis of fibromyalgia?
    • Is it possible to prevent fibromyalgia?
    • Are there support groups for fibromyalgia?
    • What is the latest research on fibromyalgia?
  • Stress Stress occurs when forces from the outside world impinge on the individual. Stress is a normal part of life. However,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stress Article
    • Stress facts
    • What is stress?
    • A brief history of stress
    • What are the signs and symptoms of poorly managed stress?
    • Who is most vulnerable to stress?
    • Teen stress
    • What is the healthy response to stress?
    • How does the response to stress work?
    • What is the role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (grouping) in stress?
    • What is the role of the locus coeruleus in stress?
    • How do the connections in the brain work in stress?
    • What do we know about using (activating) and overusing our internal systems that respond to stress?
    • What are the effects of stress on medical and psychological conditions?
    • Conclusions about the effects of stress
    • What can people do for stress management?
    • What's in the future for stress?
  • Osteopenia Osteopenia is a bone condition characterized by bone loss that is not as severe as in osteoporosis. Bone fracture is the typical...learn more »
    In This Article
    Osteopenia Article
    • Osteopenia facts
    • What is osteopenia?
    • What causes osteopenia?
    • What are osteopenia symptoms and signs?
    • Why is osteopenia important?
    • When should I see my doctor for osteopenia?
    • How is osteopenia diagnosed?
    • Who should be tested for osteopenia?
    • What is the treatment for osteopenia?
    • What follow-up is needed after treatment of osteopenia has been initiated?
    • Can osteopenia be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis of osteopenia?
  • Heart Attack Heart attack happens when a blood clot completely obstructs a coronary artery supplying blood to the heart muscle. A heart...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attack Article
    • Heart attack facts
    • What is a heart attack?
    • What causes a heart attack?
    • What are the symptoms of a heart attack?
    • What are the complications of a heart attack?
    • What are the risk factors for atherosclerosis and heart attack?
    • How is a heart attack diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for heart attack?
    • What are the risk factors for heart attack in women?
    • What are the symptoms of heart attack in women and how is heart attack diagnosed?
    • How is heart attack in women treated?
    • What about hormone therapy and heart attack in women?
    • What is new in heart attack?
  • Osteoporosis Learn about osteoporosis, a condition characterized by the loss of bone density, which leads to an increased risk of bone...learn more »
    In This Article
    Osteoporosis Article
    • Osteoporosis facts
    • What is osteoporosis?
    • What are osteoporosis symptoms and signs?
    • What are the consequences of osteoporosis?
    • Why is osteoporosis an important public health issue?
    • What factors determine bone strength?
    • What are osteoporosis risk factors and causes?
    • How is osteoporosis diagnosed?
    • Who should have bone density testing?
    • What is the treatment for osteoporosis, and can osteoporosis be prevented?
    • Exercise, quitting cigarettes, and curtailing alcohol
    • Calcium supplements
    • Vitamin D
    • Hormone therapy (hormone replacement therapy, menopausal replacement therapy)
    • Medications that prevent bone loss and breakdown
    • Choosing an osteoporosis medication
    • Prevention of osteoporosis caused by long-term corticosteroids
    • Monitoring osteoporosis therapy medication
    • Prevention of hip fractures in elderly people with osteoporosis
    • What are complications of osteoporosis?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for patients with osteoporosis?
  • Chondromalacia Patella (Patellofemoral Syndrome) Chondromalacia patella (housemaid's knee or secretary's knee) results from misalignment of the kneecap as it slides over the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Chondromalacia Patella (Patellofemoral Syndrome) Article
    • Chondromalacia patella facts
    • What is chondromalacia patella (patellofemoral syndrome)?
    • What causes chondromalacia patella?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of chondromalacia patella?
    • How is chondromalacia patella diagnosed?
    • How is chondromalacia patella treated?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) with chondromalacia patella?
    • Can chondromalacia patella be prevented?
  • Macular Degeneration Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease that gradually destroys the central vision. In people over 60, AMD is a...learn more »
    In This Article
    Macular Degeneration Article
    • Macular degeneration facts
    • What is macular degeneration?
    • What is the retina?
    • What is the macula?
    • What is age-related macular degeneration (AMD)?
    • What is wet age-related macular degeneration?
    • What are retinal drusen?
    • What is dry age-related macular degeneration?
    • What causes macular degeneration?
    • What are risk factors for macular degeneration?
    • What are macular degeneration symptoms?
    • What are signs of macular degeneration?
    • How is macular degeneration diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for wet macular degeneration?
    • What is the treatment for dry macular degeneration?
    • What are complications of macular degeneration?
    • What is the prognosis for macular degeneration?
    • Can macular degeneration be prevented?
    • What research is being done on macular degeneration?
  • Angina Angina is chest pain due to inadequate blood supply to the heart. Angina symptoms may include chest tightness, burning,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Angina Article
    • What is angina?
    • What causes angina?
    • What are the different types of angina?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of angina?
    • How is angina diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for angina?
    • What is the prognosis for angina?
    • Can angina be prevented?
  • Claudication Intermittent claudication, or pain and cramping in the lower leg is caused by inadequate blood flow to the leg muscles. This lack...learn more »
    In This Article
    Claudication Article
    • What is claudication?
    • What causes claudication?
    • What are the symptoms of claudication?
    • Why does claudication come and go?
    • What can cause the artery narrowing that leads to claudication?
    • Who typically is affected by claudication?
    • What are the risk factors for claudication and peripheral vascular disease?
    • How is claudication diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for claudication?
    • Can claudication be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis and treatment for patients with intermittent claudication?
  • Aortic Stenosis Aortic valve stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of the aortic valve of the heart. The causes of aortic stenosis are wear and tear...learn more »
    In This Article
    Aortic Stenosis Article
    • Aortic valve stenosis facts
    • What is aortic stenosis?
    • What causes aortic stenosis?
    • How does aortic stenosis affect the left ventricle pump?
    • What are the symptoms of aortic stenosis?
    • What might the doctor find in patients with aortic stenosis?
    • How is aortic stenosis diagnosed?
    • How is aortic stenosis treated?
  • Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis is a disease of the mucus and sweat glands. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease. The outcome of the disease...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cystic Fibrosis Article
    • Cystic fibrosis facts*
    • What is cystic fibrosis?
    • What are other names for cystic fibrosis?
    • What causes cystic fibrosis?
    • Is cystic fibrosis inherited?
    • Who is at risk for cystic fibrosis?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis?
    • How is cystic fibrosis diagnosed?
    • How is cystic fibrosis treated?
    • Living with cystic fibrosis
    • What is the outlook for cystic fibrosis?
  • Compartment Syndrome Compartment syndrome is a condition in which swelling and an increase in pressure within a limited space presses and compresses...learn more »
    In This Article
    Compartment Syndrome Article
    • Compartment syndrome facts
    • What is compartment syndrome?
    • What causes compartment syndrome?
    • What are the risk factors for compartment syndrome?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of compartment syndrome?
    • When should I seek medical care for compartment syndrome?
    • How is compartment syndrome diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for compartment syndrome?
    • Surgery (fasciotomy)
    • What are the complications of compartment syndrome?
    • What is the prognosis for compartment syndrome?
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Chronic fatigue syndrome is a debilitating and complex disorder characterized by profound fatigue that lasts 6 months or longer,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Article
    • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) facts
    • What is chronic fatigue syndrome?
    • What causes chronic fatigue syndrome?
    • What are risk factors for chronic fatigue syndrome?
    • What are symptoms and signs of chronic fatigue syndrome?
    • What are chronic fatigue syndrome symptoms in men?
    • What are chronic fatigue syndrome symptoms in women?
    • How is chronic fatigue syndrome diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome?
    • Is there a cure for chronic fatigue syndrome?
    • What is the prognosis of chronic fatigue syndrome?
    • Can chronic fatigue syndrome be prevented?
    • Where can people find additional information about chronic fatigue syndrome?
  • Stroke A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain caused by either a blood clot (ischemic) or bleeding...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stroke Article
    • Stroke facts
    • What is a stroke?
    • What are the different types of stroke?
    • What are the warning signs of a stroke?
    • What are the symptoms of a stroke?
    • How is a stroke diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for stroke?
    • What is the prognosis for stroke?
    • Is recovery after a stroke possible?
    • What is stroke rehabilitation?
    • Can strokes be prevented?
  • POT Syndrome POT syndrome (POTS, postrual orthostatic tachycardia syndrome) is a nervous system disorder that causes lightheadedness and...learn more »
    In This Article
    POT Syndrome Article
    • What is postural tachycardia syndrome?
    • Is there any treatment?
    • What is the prognosis?
    • What research is being done?
  • Head and Neck Cancer Head and neck cancer is cancer of the oral cavity, salivary glands, paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, or lymph...learn more »
    In This Article
    Head and Neck Cancer Article
    • Head and neck cancer facts*
    • What is cancer?
    • What kinds of cancers are considered cancers of the head and neck?
    • How common are head and neck cancers?
    • What causes head and neck cancers?
    • What are common symptoms of head and neck cancers?
    • How are head and neck cancers diagnosed?
    • What health professionals treat patients with head and neck cancers?
    • How are head and neck cancers treated?
    • Are clinical trials (research studies) available for patients with head and neck cancers?
    • What rehabilitation or support options are available for patients with head and neck cancers?
    • Is follow-up treatment necessary? What does it involve?
    • What can people who have had head and neck cancer do to reduce the risk of developing a second primary (new) cancer?
  • Amenorrhea Amenorrhea is a condition in which there is an absense of menstrual periods in a woman. There are two types of amenorrhea, 1)...learn more »
    In This Article
    Amenorrhea Article
    • Amenorrhea facts
    • What is amenorrhea?
    • What causes amenorrhea?
    • What are the symptoms of amenorrhea?
    • When should I seek medical care for amenorrhea?
    • How is amenorrhea diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for amenorrhea?
    • What are the complications of amenorrhea?
    • Can amenorrhea be prevented?
    • What is the outlook for a woman suffering from amenorrhea?
  • Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that affects a number of different areas of the body at one time, and can be fatal....learn more »
    In This Article
    Anaphylaxis Article
    • Anaphylaxis facts
    • Introduction to anaphylaxis
    • What is the history of anaphylaxis?
    • How common is anaphylaxis?
    • What are common causes of anaphylaxis?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis?
    • What happens after the symptoms begin?
    • Are there any disorders that appear similar to anaphylaxis?
    • How is anaphylaxis diagnosed?
    • How do we manage anaphylaxis?
    • What are emergency measures used in the treatment of anaphylaxis?
    • Can anaphylaxis be prevented?
  • Sprains and Strains An injury to a ligament is called a sprain, and an injury to muscle or tendon is called a strain. Sprains and strains may be...learn more »
    In This Article
    Sprains and Strains Article
    • Muscle sprains and strains facts
    • What is the difference between a sprain and a strain?
    • What causes a sprain or strain?
    • Where do sprains and strains usually occur?
    • What are sprain symptoms and signs?
    • How are sprains and strains diagnosed?
    • How are sprains and strains treated?
    • What is the recovery time for sprains and strains?
    • Can sprains and strains be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis of sprains and strains?
    • Where can people find more information about sprains and strains?
  • Frozen Shoulder A frozen shoulder (adhesive capsulitis) is when the shoulder joint experiences a significant loss in its range of motion due to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Frozen Shoulder Article
    • Frozen shoulder facts
    • What is a frozen shoulder?
    • What causes a frozen shoulder?
    • What are symptoms and signs of a frozen shoulder?
    • How is a frozen shoulder diagnosed?
    • What conditions can mimic a frozen shoulder?
    • What is the treatment for a frozen shoulder?
    • What is the prognosis of a frozen shoulder?
    • Can a frozen shoulder be prevented?
  • Varicose Veins Varicose vein: A dilated (widened) tortuous (twisting) vein, usually involving a superficial vein in the leg, often associated...learn more »
    In This Article
    Varicose Veins Article
    • Varicose veins and spider veins facts
    • What are veins and what is their function?
    • What are varicose veins and spider veins?
    • Varicose vein and spider vein pictures
    • Who gets varicose and spider veins?
    • What causes varicose and spider veins?
    • What are varicose vein symptoms?
    • How are varicose veins evaluated (diagnosed)?
    • What treatments are available for varicose veins and spider veins?
    • How can compression stockings help with varicose veins?
    • What is sclerotherapy?
    • Pictures of sclerotherapy treatment
    • What are potential side effects and complications of sclerotherapy?
    • What surgical procedures are available to treat varicose veins?
    • Can laser be used to treat varicose and spider veins?
    • What type of doctors provide treatments for varicose and spider veins?
    • What are the side effects of these treatments?
    • How can varicose veins be prevented?
  • Cauliflower Ear Cauliflower ear, or "Boxer's Ear" is caused by an injury to the ear, usually by blunt trauma from sports such as boxing,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cauliflower Ear Article
    • What is cauliflower ear?
    • What causes cauliflower ear?
    • What are the symptoms of cauliflower ear?
    • What is the treatment for cauliflower ear?
    • What is the prognosis for cauliflower ear?
    • How can cauliflower ear be prevented?
  • Asthma: Over the Counter Treatment Patients who have infrequent, mild bouts of asthma attacks may use over-the-counter (OTC) medications to treat their asthma...learn more »
    In This Article
    Asthma: Over the Counter Treatment Article
    • What is asthma?
    • What medications are used to treat asthma?
    • How do over-the-counter (OTC) medicines for asthma work?
    • What factors should be considered in choosing and using OTC epinephrine or ephedrine?
    • What side effects and drug interactions are there with OTC asthma medicines?
    • What are additional measures in the management of asthma?
  • Heat-Related Illness Hyperthermia is the overheating of the body. Heat-related illnesses like heat stroke, heat exhaustion, heat cramps, heat rash,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heat-Related Illness Article
    • Heat-related illness facts
    • What is a heat-related illness?
    • What causes a heat-related illness?
    • Who is at risk of heat-related illness?
    • What are the symptoms of heat-related illness?
    • Heat stroke
    • Heat exhaustion
    • Heat cramps
    • Heat syncope
    • Heat rash
    • Heat-related illness prevention
  • Palpitations Palpitations are unpleasant sensations of irregular and/or forceful beating of the heart. Palpitations can be relieved in many...learn more »
    In This Article
    Palpitations Article
    • Palpitations facts
    • What are palpitations?
    • What is the normal heartbeat?
    • What are symptoms of arrhythmias?
    • What are the causes of arrhythmias?
    • How are palpitations evaluated?
    • What is the treatment for palpitations?
  • High Blood Pressure Treatment High blood pressure (hypertension) means high pressure (tension) in the arteries. Treatment for high blood pressure include...learn more »
    In This Article
    High Blood Pressure Treatment Article
    • What is high blood pressure (hypertension)?
    • Which lifestyle modifications are beneficial in treating high blood pressure?
    • Alcohol
    • Smoking
    • Coffee and caffeinated beverages
    • Salt
    • Other dietary considerations
    • Obesity
    • Exercise and stress reduction
    • How is high blood pressure treated?
    • Starting treatment for high blood pressure
    • Treatment with combinations of drugs for high blood pressure
    • Emergency treatment for high blood pressure
    • Treatment during pregnancy
    • Which medications are used to treat high blood pressure
    • Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) and angiotensin receptor blockers
    • Beta blockers
    • Diuretics
    • Calcium channel blockers (CCBs)
    • Alpha blockers
    • Clonidine
    • Minoxidil
    • Renin inhibitors
    • Aldosterone blockers
    • Combining agents
    • What about the patient's compliance with medication regimens?
    • Is alternative medicine used to treat high blood pressure?
    • What are the complications of high blood pressure?
    • Can high blood pressure be prevented?
    • What's new in high blood pressure?
  • Stress Management Techniques Stress may be considered as any physical, chemical, or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental unrest and that may be a...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stress Management Techniques Article
    • Stress-management facts
    • What is stress?
    • Who is most susceptible to stress?
    • What are the symptoms and effects of excess stress or "out-of-control" stress?
    • What can I do to better manage stress?
    • What are some effective stress-management strategies?
    • Exercise
    • Relaxation techniques/meditation
    • Other stress management strategies; time management
    • Organization skills
    • Support systems
    • How can I get help with stress management?
  • Kyphosis Kyphosis is outward curvature of the thoracic spine (upper back). Abnormal kyphosis results in the appearance of a hunchback,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Kyphosis Article
    • Kyphosis facts
    • What is kyphosis?
    • What are the symptoms of kyphosis?
    • What causes abnormal kyphosis? What are the types of kyphosis?
    • When should you seek medical attention?
    • What tests is your physician likely to obtain?
    • How is abnormal kyphosis treated?
    • What are the potential complications of surgery for kyphosis?
    • What ongoing care is required for patients with kyphosis?
    • How can I prevent kyphosis?
    • What is the prognosis for kyphosis?
  • Cholesterol High cholesterol and triglyceride levels increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Getting your cholesterol and triglyceride...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cholesterol Article
    • What is cholesterol?
    • What are the different types of cholesterol?
    • Why is high cholesterol dangerous?
    • Where does cholesterol come from?
    • What are normal cholesterol levels?
    • Which foods can help lower cholesterol?
    • What other lifestyle interventions help lower cholesterol?
    • What medications are available to treat high cholesterol?
  • Dystonia Dystonia disorders cause involuntary movements and prolonged muscle contraction, resulting in twisting body motions, tremor, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Dystonia Article
    • Dystonia facts*
    • What is dystonia?
    • What are the symptoms of dystonia?
    • What do researchers know about dystonia?
    • When do symptoms of dystonia occur?
    • How are the dystonias classified?
    • What treatments are available for dystonias?
    • What research is being done on dystonias?
    • Where can I get more information about dystonias?
  • Healthy Living and Disease Prevention The importance of a healthy lifestyle in disease prevention is widely understood and most people know that lifestyle changes and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Healthy Living and Disease Prevention Article
    • Healthy living facts
    • Eating (diet)
    • Physical activity and exercise
    • Avoid tobacco use
    • Avoid excessive alcohol consumption
    • Avoid high-risk sexual behaviors
    • Avoid other high-risk behaviors
    • Additional tips for healthy living
  • Knee Injury Knee injuries, especially meniscus tears, are common in contact sports. Symptoms and signs of a torn meniscus include knee pain,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Knee Injury Article
    • Knee injury facts
    • What are the different types of knee injuries?
    • What causes a knee injury?
    • What are risk factors for a knee injury?
    • What are knee injury symptoms and signs?
    • How is a knee injury diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a knee injury?
    • What exercises are recommended and what exercises should be avoided during rehabilitation for a knee injury?
    • What is the recovery time for a knee injury?
    • What is the prognosis of a knee injury?
    • Can knee injuries be prevented?
  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth-Disease Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is one of the most common inherited neurological disorders. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease affects the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Charcot-Marie-Tooth-Disease Article
    • What is Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease?
    • What are the symptoms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease?
    • What causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease?
    • What are the types of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease?
    • How is Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease diagnosed?
    • How is Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease treated?
    • What research is being done on Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease?
  • Dysthymia Dysthymia is a less severe form of chronic depression. Symptoms and signs include insomnia, suicidal thoughts, guilt, empty...learn more »
    In This Article
    Dysthymia Article
    • Dysthymia facts
    • What is dysthymia?
    • What are causes and risk factors for dysthymia?
    • What are symptoms and signs of dysthymia?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose dysthymia?
    • What is the treatment for dysthymia?
    • What is the prognosis of dysthymia?
    • Is it possible to prevent dysthymia?
    • Are there support groups for people with dysthymia?
  • Steroid Abuse Anabolic steroids are synthetic substances that are related to testosterone and promote skeletal muscle growth and the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Steroid Abuse Article
    • Anabolic steroid abuse facts
    • What are anabolic steroids?
    • Why do people abuse anabolic steroids?
    • How do people abuse anabolic steroids?
    • Are anabolic steroids addictive?
    • What are the psychological and physical side effects of anabolic steroid abuse?
    • How are anabolic steroid abuse and addiction diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for anabolic steroid abuse and addiction?
    • Can anabolic steroid abuse and addiction be prevented?
    • Where can I get more information on anabolic steroid abuse?
  • Childhood Obesity Fast food consumption and lack of exercise are just a couple of causes of childhood obesity. Health effects of childhood obesity...learn more »
    In This Article
    Childhood Obesity Article
    • Childhood obesity facts
    • What is childhood obesity? How is childhood obesity diagnosed?
    • How prevalent is childhood obesity?
    • What causes childhood obesity?
    • What are childhood obesity symptoms and signs?
    • What are risk factors for childhood obesity?
    • What are the risks, complications, and long-term health effects of childhood obesity?
    • What is the treatment for childhood obesity?
    • Can childhood obesity be prevented?
    • What research is being done on childhood obesity?
    • Where can people find more information on childhood obesity?
  • Eosinophilic Fasciitis Eosinophilic fasciitis is a skin disease that causes thickening and inflammation of the skin and fascia. Symptoms include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Eosinophilic Fasciitis Article
    • What are eosinophils?
    • What is fascia?
    • What is eosinophilic fasciitis?
    • What causes eosinophilic fasciitis?
    • What are symptoms and signs of eosinophilic fasciitis?
    • How is eosinophilic fasciitis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for eosinophilic fasciitis?
    • What is the prognosis of eosinophilic fasciitis?
    • Can eosinophilic fasciitis be prevented?
  • Asthma Asthma is a condition in which hyperreactive airways constrict and result in symptoms like wheezing, coughing, and shortness of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Asthma Article
    • What is asthma?
    • What causes asthma?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of asthma?
    • How is asthma diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for asthma?
    • What is an asthma action plan?
    • What is the prognosis for asthma?
    • Can asthma be prevented?
  • Post-Polio Syndrome Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a group of signs and symptoms that show up two to four decades after the initial polio infection....learn more »
    In This Article
    Post-Polio Syndrome Article
    • What is post-polio syndrome?
    • What are the symptoms of post-polio syndrome?
    • What causes post-polio syndrome?
    • How is post-polio syndrome diagnosed?
    • How is post-polio syndrome treated?
    • What is the role of exercise in the treatment of post-polio syndrome?
    • Can post-polio syndrome be prevented?
    • What research is being conducted on post-polio syndrome?
    • Where can I get more information?
  • Heart Attack Treatment A heart attack involves damage or death of part of the heart muscle due to a blood clot. The aim of heart attack treatment is to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attack Treatment Article
    • What is a heart attack?
    • How is a heart attack treated?
    • Antiplatelet agents
    • Aspirin
    • Thienopyridines
    • Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors
    • Anticoagulants
    • Clot-dissolving drugs
    • Coronary angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
    • Coronary artery stents
    • Nitrates
    • Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
    • Beta blockers
    • Oxygen
    • Coronary artery bypass
    • What can a patient expect during recovery from a heart attack?
    • How can a second heart attack be prevented?
  • Alzheimer's Disease Patient Caregiver Guide Caring for a loved one or patient with Alzheimer's can become a difficult and overwhelming task at times. This guide helps...learn more »
    In This Article
    Alzheimer's Disease Patient Caregiver Guide Article
    • Tips for caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease
    • Dealing with the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease
    • Communicating with a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Bathing a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Dressing a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Eating: getting a person with Alzheimer's disease to eat
    • Activities for a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Exercise for a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Incontinence in a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Sleep problems for caregivers and a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Hallucinations and delusions in a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Wandering: a problem for a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Home safety for a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Driving: decisions for a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Visiting the doctor with a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Coping with holidays with a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Visiting a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Choosing a nursing home for a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • For more information about Alzheimer's disease
  • Cardiomyopathy (Dilated) Dilated Cardiomyopathy is a condition where the heart's ability to pump blood is decreased because the heart's main pumping...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cardiomyopathy (Dilated) Article
    • What Is dilated cardiomyopathy?
    • What are the symptoms of Dilated Cardiomyopathy?
    • What causes Dilated Cardiomyopathy?
    • How is Dilated Cardiomyopathy diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for Dilated Cardiomyopathy?
    • What surgeries are used to treat Dilated Cardiomyopathy?
  • Cellulite Cellulite is caused by fat deposits that distort connective tissues under the skin, resulting in a dimpled appearance of the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cellulite Article
    • What is cellulite?
    • What causes cellulite?
    • What are the supposed "treatments" for cellulite?
    • How about liposuction?
    • What can be done about cellulite?
  • Encopresis Encopresis is a type of elimination disorder in which bowel movements are passed into places other than the toilet. Children with...learn more »
    In This Article
    Encopresis Article
    • Elimination disorders in children facts
    • What are elimination disorders in children?
    • What are the risk factors and causes of constipation and encopresis?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of constipation?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of encopresis?
    • How are elimination disorders diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for elimination disorders in children?
    • Can elimination disorders in children be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for children with elimination disorders?
  • Pycnodysostosis Pycnodysostosis (pyknodysostosis) is an inherited disease of the bone. Characteristics of individuals with pycnodysostosis are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pycnodysostosis Article
    • Pycnodysostosis facts
    • What is pycnodysostosis?
    • What is basis for the name of this disease?
    • What are the characteristics of pycnodysostosis?
    • How is pycnodysostosis inherited?
    • What are the risks of pycnodysostosis?
    • What is the molecular story with pycnodysostosis?
    • Could there be a connection between pycnodysostosis and osteoporosis?
    • What is the treatment for pycnodysostosis?
  • 13 Tips for Parenting a Teen With ADHD Parenting a teenager who has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be challenging. Parents can use specific...learn more »
    In This Article
    13 Tips for Parenting a Teen With ADHD Article
    • Introduction to parenting teens
    • 13 tips for dealing with your ADHD teen
    • ADHD teens and driving
    • ADHD teens, school, and homework
    • ADHD teens, alcohol, and drugs
    • Alcohol use by children
  • Pregnancy Planning Pregnancy planning is an important step in preparation for starting or expanding a family. Planning for a pregnancy includes...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy Planning Article
    • Pregnancy planning facts
    • What is pregnancy planning?
    • What are pre-pregnancy planning goals?
    • What is a pregnancy calendar or calculator?
    • How soon can a woman start trying to conceive after stopping birth control?
    • What are dietary considerations for pregnancy planning?
    • How much weight gain is recommended in pregnancy?
    • What about alcohol consumption and pregnancy planning?
    • What infections should be avoided in pregnancy?
    • Should I exercise when pregnant?
    • Is it safe to have sexual intercourse during pregnancy?
    • Is air travel safe for pregnant women?
    • Do medications need to be stopped when planning pregnancy or when a woman becomes pregnant?
  • Breast Cancer Prevention Lifestyle changes, a healthy antioxidant-rich diet, exercise, and weight reduction can help reduce a woman's risk of developing...learn more »
    In This Article
    Breast Cancer Prevention Article
    • Introduction to breast cancer prevention
    • What are the biological causes of breast cancer?
    • What are the risk factors for developing breast cancer?
    • What is the importance of early breast cancer detection?
    • What are the advantages and limitations of mammography?
    • How frequently should women undergo mammography and breast examinations?
    • What is the risk of radiation with repeated mammography screening over the years?
    • Are there any controversies in the area of breast cancer screening?
    • How helpful are BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic tests in identifying women at risk?
    • What is the link between estrogen and breast cancer?
    • What are breast cancer prevention treatments?
    • Are there other breast cancer prevention measures?
    • Conclusion
  • Cardiomyopathy (Restrictive) Restrictive cardiomyopathy, the rarest form of cardiomyopathy, is a condition in which the walls of the lower chambers of the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cardiomyopathy (Restrictive) Article
    • What is restrictive cardiomyopathy?
    • What are the symptoms of restrictive cardiomyopathy?
    • What causes restrictive cardiomyopathy?
    • How is restrictive cardiomyopathy diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for restrictive cardiomyopathy?
    • What lifestyle changes are recommended for restrictive cardiomyopathy?
    • What medications are used for restrictive cardiomyopathy?
    • Can surgery treat restrictive cardiomyopathy?
    • Related cardiomyopathy article:
      Cardiomyopathy - on eMedicineHealth
  • Endometrial Cancer Prevention Endometrial cancer, or uterine cancer, affects the endometrium of the uterus. It's the most common invasive cancer of the female...learn more »
    In This Article
    Endometrial Cancer Prevention Article
    • What is prevention?
    • What is endometrial cancer (uterine cancer)?
    • Can endometrial cancer (uterine cancer) be prevented?
    • What are risk factors for endometrial cancer (uterine cancer)?
  • Oral Health and Bone Disease Osteoporosis may be linked to bone loss in the jaw, which in turn, leads to tooth loss. Low bone density may result in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Oral Health and Bone Disease Article
    • Oral health and bone disease facts*
    • Introduction to oral health and bone disease
    • Skeletal bone density and dental concerns
    • Periodontal disease and bone health
    • The role of the dentist and dental X-rays
    • The effects of osteoporosis treatments on oral health
    • Taking steps for healthy bones
  • Cancer Prevention Certain behavioral, lifestyle, and environmental factors contribute to cancer. Cancer prevention involves modifying these factors...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cancer Prevention Article
    • What is cancer prevention?
    • Carcinogenesis
    • Cancer Risk factors
    • Factors That are Known to Increase the Risk of Cancer
    • Factors That May Affect the Risk of Cancer
    • Interventions that are known to lower cancer risk
    • Interventions that are not known to lower cancer risk
  • Parenting a Child With ADHD ADHD is a behavioral condition with characteristics that include hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. Parenting a child...learn more »
    In This Article
    Parenting a Child With ADHD Article
    • Childhood ADHD facts
    • What are the signs and symptoms of childhood ADHD?
    • What should parents do if they suspect their child has ADHD?
    • What are the causes of childhood ADHD?
    • What should parents of children with ADHD expect from their child?
    • What treatment options exist for a child with ADHD?
    • What are the risks of the use of stimulant medication and other treatments?
    • What are other therapeutic approaches for children with ADHD?
    • Is childhood ADHD on the rise?
    • What is the outlook for a child with ADHD?
    • What can parents of children with ADHD do to help themselves?
  • Vitamins & Exercise: Heart Attack Prevention Series Vitamins and exercise can lower your risk for heart attack and heart disease. Folic acid, vitamins, and homocysteine levels are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Vitamins & Exercise: Heart Attack Prevention Series Article
    • Homocysteine, folic acid, and B vitamins
    • What about antioxidants for heart attack prevention?
    • How about exercise for heart attack prevention?
    • What about smoking cessation for heart attack prevention?
    • Recommendations to prevent heart attacks
  • Heart Attack Prevention Overview Heart attacks are the major causes of unexpected, sudden death among men and women. A heart attack is also a significant cause of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attack Prevention Overview Article
    • Introduction
    • What is atherosclerosis?
    • What are coronary heart diseases (CHD)?
    • What is angina pectoris?
    • What is a heart attack?
    • Ventricular fibrillation
    • Heart failure
    • What is cerebral vascular disease?
    • Ischemic stroke
    • Hemorrhagic stroke
    • Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
    • When does the coronary atherosclerosis process begin?
    • Have most people done enough to prevent atherosclerosis and heart attacks?
    • What are the risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis and heart disease?
    • How can coronary atherosclerosis and heart attacks be prevented?
  • Exercise-Induced Asthma Exercise-induced asthma is asthma triggered by vigorous exercise. Symptoms include coughing, shortness of breath, chest...learn more »
    In This Article
    Exercise-Induced Asthma Article
    • What is exercise-induced asthma?
    • Why does exercise induce asthma?
    • If I have asthma, should I avoid exercise?
    • Can my exercise-induced asthma be prevented?
    • What are the best exercises for someone with asthma?
    • Are there some tips to prevent and treat exercise-induced asthma?
  • Juvenile Bone Health Setting a good example for your children when it comes to diet and exercise will help them to make healthy decisions about...learn more »
    In This Article
    Juvenile Bone Health Article
    • Why is childhood such an important time for bone development?
    • What is osteoporosis? Isn't it something old people get?
    • How can I help keep my kids' bones healthy?
    • How can I persuade my daughter to drink milk instead of diet soda? She thinks milk will make her fat.
    • But my kids don't like milk.
    • My teenage son loves milk, but it seems to upset his stomach. Could he have lactose intolerance?
    • My daughter is constantly dieting. Should I be concerned?
    • Should I give my kids calcium supplements?
    • How does physical activity help my kids' bones?
    • Is it possible to get too much exercise?
    • What else can my kids do besides eating calcium-rich foods and getting plenty of weight-bearing exercise to keep their bones healthy?
    • My son has asthma and takes a steroid medication to control it. His doctor said this might affect his bones. Is there anything we can do about this?
    • My 8-year-old son is a daredevil and has already broken several bones. could he have a problem like osteoporosis at this young age?
    • How can I get through to my kids? They sure don't think about their bones.
    • Where can I go for more information?