- What is estrogens conjugated, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for estrogens conjugated?
- Is estrogens conjugated available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for estrogens conjugated?
- What are the side effects of estrogens conjugated?
- What is the dosage for estrogens conjugated?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with estrogens conjugated?
- Is estrogens conjugated safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about estrogens conjugated?
What is estrogens conjugated, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Estrogens are one of the two major classes of female hormones. (Progestins comprise the second major class). Estrogens are used primarily to treat the symptoms of menopause and states in which there is a deficiency of estrogen, for example, in women who have had their ovaries removed. Conjugated estrogens are a mixture of several different estrogens (estrogen salts) that are derived from natural sources and blended to approximate the composition of estrogens in the urine of pregnant horses. The main components are sodium estrone sulphate and sodium equilin sulfate.
Estrogens have widespread effects on many tissues in the body. Estrogens cause growth and development of the female sexual organs and maintain female sexual characteristics such as the growth of underarm and pubic hair, body contours, and skeleton. Estrogens also increase secretions from the cervix and growth of the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium).
What brand names are available for estrogens conjugated?
Is estrogens conjugated available as a generic drug?
GENERIC AVAILABLE: No.
Do I need a prescription for estrogens conjugated?
What are the side effects of estrogens conjugated?
Common side effects of conjugated estrogens are:
Other side important effects include:
- vaginal spotting,
- loss of periods or
- excessively prolonged periods,
- breast pain,
- breast enlargement and
- an increase or decrease in sexual drive.
Estrogens can cause salt (sodium) and water retention (edema). Therefore, patients with heart failure or reduced function of their kidneys who are taking estrogens should be carefully observed for retention of water and its complications.
Blood clots in the legs or lungs occasionally occur in women taking conjugated estrogens. This potentially serious complication of estrogen therapy is dose-related, that is, it occurs more commonly with higher doses. Therefore, the lowest effective doses that relieve symptoms should be used.
Estrogens can promote a build up of the lining of the uterus (endometrial hyperplasia) and increase the risk of endometrial cancer. (Women who have undergone surgical removal of the uterus--hysterectomy--are not susceptible to endometrial hyperplasia.) The addition of a progestin to estrogen therapy prevents the development of endometrial cancer.
The Women's Health Initiative found that postmenopausal women (50-79 years old) taking conjugated estrogens, 0.625 mg daily, in combination with medroxyprogesterone, 2.5 mg daily, for five years, had an increased risk of heart attacks, stroke, breast cancer, and blood clots, while postmenopausal women taking conjugated estrogens without progesterone experienced only increased strokes but not increased blood clots, heart disease, or breast cancer.
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