Dr. Eni Williams graduated from Creighton University in 1988 with a B.S. degree in pharmacy and a Doctor of Pharmacy from Howard University in 1994. She also obtained a Ph.D. in Public Policy in 2009 at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County.
Jay W. Marks, MD, is a board-certified internist and gastroenterologist. He graduated from Yale University School of Medicine and trained in internal medicine and gastroenterology at UCLA/Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles.
Blood clots are an occasional but serious adverse effect and are dose-related. (The higher the dose of estradiol, the more likely blood clots are to form.) Cigarette smokers are at a higher risk for clots, and, therefore, patients requiring estrogen therapy are strongly encouraged to quit smoking.
Estrogens can increase the risk of
endometrial cancer. This risk may be decreased if estrogens are combined with progestin.
Some people also have a higher chance of developing breast cancer while taking estrogens. Sometimes people who have breast cancer when they are taking estrogens may have increased calcium in the blood. If this happens, the estrogen should be stopped.