Endoscopy Related Diseases & Conditions

Medical tests and procedures are used to diagnose and treat a wide variety of conditions. Our doctors have compiled a list of ailments related to the topic of Endoscopy that may be used to diagnose or monitor the status of the diseases and conditions listed below.

  • Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) Thrush is an infection of the mouth caused by the candida fungus. Symptoms of Thrush include pain or difficulty swallowing, a...learn more »
  • Anemia Anemia is the condition of having less than the normal number of red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin...learn more »
  • Abdominal Pain (Causes, Remedies, Treatment) Abdominal pain can have many causes. Some of the less serious causes include bloating, gas, colitis, endometriosis, food...learn more »
    In This Article
    Abdominal Pain (Causes, Remedies, Treatment) Article
    • Definition of abdominal pain
    • What are the ways to describe abdominal pain?
    • What are the causes of abdominal pain?
    • What are the less serious causes of abdominal pain?
    • What are more serious causes of abdominal pain?
    • When should I call my doctor about abdominal pain?
    • What are the methods used to diagnose abdominal pain?
    • What are the home remedies for certain causes of abdominal pain?
    • What medications can be used to treat certain causes of abdominal pain?
    • What lifestyle choices can I make to prevent abdominal pain?
  • Helicobacter Pylori (H pylori) Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacterium that causes chronic inflammation (gastritis) of the inner lining of the stomach in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Helicobacter Pylori (H pylori) Article
    • What is Helicobacter pylori?
    • What does H. pylori cause in humans?
    • What are the symptoms of H. pylori infections?
    • Is H. pylori contagious?
    • How is H. pylori infection diagnosed?
    • Why treat H. pylori?
    • What is the treatment for H. pylori?
    • Who should receive treatment for H. pylori?
    • Can H. pylori infections be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for H. pylori infections?
  • Abdominal Pain Abdominal pain is pain in the belly and can be acute or chronic. Causes include inflammation, distention of an organ, and loss...learn more »
    In This Article
    Abdominal Pain Article
    • Abdominal pain facts
    • What is abdominal pain?
    • What causes abdominal pain?
    • How is the cause of abdominal pain diagnosed?
    • Characteristics, symptoms, and signs of the abdominal pain
    • Associated signs and symptoms of abdominal pain
    • Physical examination
    • Exams and tests
    • Special problem in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) of diagnosing the cause of abdominal pain
    • Why can diagnosis of the cause of abdominal pain be difficult?
    • How can I help my doctor to determine the cause of my abdominal pain?
  • Crohn's Disease Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease, primarily involving the small and large intestine, but which can affect...learn more »
    In This Article
    Crohn's Disease Article
    • Crohn's disease facts
    • What is Crohn's disease?
    • What causes Crohn's disease?
    • How does Crohn's disease affect the intestines?
    • How is Crohn's disease different from ulcerative colitis?
    • What are the symptoms of Crohn's disease?
    • What are the complications of Crohn's disease?
    • How is Crohn's disease diagnosed?
    • How is Crohn's disease treated?
    • Crohn's Disease Medications
    • Anti-inflammatory medications
    • 5-ASA (mesalamine) oral medications
    • 5-ASA rectal medications (Rowasa, Canasa)
    • Corticosteroids
    • Budesonide (Entocort EC)
    • Antibiotics
    • Immuno-modulator medications
    • Azathioprine (Imuran) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP, Purinethol)
    • Infliximab (Remicade)
    • Adalimumab (Humira)
    • Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia)
    • Natalizumab (Tysabri)
    • Methotrexate
    • Surgery in Crohn's disease
    • Are there any recommendations for diet and supplementation for Crohn's disease?
    • Conclusions
  • Gastritis Gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach lining. Causes of gastritis include drinking too much alcohol, medications such as...learn more »
    In This Article
    Gastritis Article
    • What is gastritis?
    • What causes gastritis?
    • What are the symptoms of gastritis?
    • How is gastritis diagnosed?
    • What are the treatment medications and home remedies for gastritis?
    • What are the complications of gastritis?
    • What is the prognosis of gastritis?
    • How is gastritis prevented?
  • Esophageal Cancer Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the esophagus. Risk factors of cancer of the esophagus include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Esophageal Cancer Article
    • Esophageal cancer facts*
    • What is the esophagus?
    • What is cancer?
    • What are the types of esophageal cancer?
    • What are esophageal cancer causes and risk factors?
    • What are esophageal cancer symptoms and signs?
    • How is esophageal cancer diagnosed?
    • What are the stages of esophageal cancer?
    • What is the treatment for esophageal cancer?
    • Surgery
    • Radiation therapy
    • Chemotherapy
    • Should people get a second opinion after an esophageal cancer diagnosis?
    • What are the side effects of treatment for cancer of the esophagus?
    • What follow-up care is necessary during recovery?
    • Where can people get support for esophageal cancer?
    • How can people with esophageal cancer participate in clinical trials?
    • Where can people find more information about esophageal cancer?
  • Internal Bleeding Internal bleeding occurs when an artery or vein is damaged and blood to escapes the circulatory system and collects inside the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Internal Bleeding Article
    • Internal bleeding facts
    • What is internal bleeding?
    • What causes internal bleeding?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of internal bleeding?
    • How is internal bleeding diagnosed?
    • How is internal bleeding treated?
    • What are the complications of internal bleeding?
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) is a condition in which the acidified liquid contents of the stomach backs up into the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Article
    • GERD facts
    • What is GERD (acid reflux)?
    • What causes GERD?
    • What are the symptoms of uncomplicated GERD?
    • What are the complications of GERD?
    • How is GERD diagnosed and evaluated?
    • Symptoms and procedures to diagnose GERD
    • GERD tests
    • How is GERD treated?
    • Lifestyle changes and GERD diet
    • GERD medications
    • GERD surgery
    • What is a reasonable approach to the management of GERD?
    • What are the unresolved issues in GERD?
  • Esophagitis Esophagitis is caused by an infection or irritation of the esophagus. Infections that cause esophagitis include candida yeast...learn more »
    In This Article
    Esophagitis Article
    • What is esophagitis?
    • What causes esophagitis?
    • What are the types of esophagitis?
    • What are the symptoms of esophagitis?
    • How is esophagitis diagnosed?
    • How is esophagitis treated?
    • What about esophagitis and diet?
    • What options are there for pain relief for esophagitis?
    • What are the complications of esophagitis?
    • Can esophagitis be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for esophagitis?
  • Eosinophilic Esophagitis Eosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammation of the esophagus. Eosinophilic esophagitis has many causes including acid reflux,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Eosinophilic Esophagitis Article
    • Eosinophilic esophagitis facts
    • What is and what causes eosinophilic esophagitis?
    • What are the symptoms of eosinophilic esophagitis?
    • How does eosinophilic esophagitis cause dysphagia?
    • What are the other causes of dysphagia or solid food?
    • How is eosinophilic esophagitis diagnosed?
    • How is eosinophilic esophagitis treated?
    • What about elimination diets for treating eosinophilic esophagitis?
    • What is the future of eosinophilic esophagitis?
  • Giardia Lamblia Giardiasis (Giardia lamblia) is a parasite responsible for a common form of infectious diarrhea. The parasite lives in two...learn more »
    In This Article
    Giardia Lamblia Article
    • What is giardiasis?
    • Who is at risk for giardiasis?
    • What signs and symptoms does giardiasis cause?
    • How is giardiasis diagnosed?
    • How is giardiasis treated?
    • How can giardiasis be prevented?
  • Peptic Ulcer A peptic ulcer is an ulcer in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus. Ulcer formation is related to Helicobacter...learn more »
    In This Article
    Peptic Ulcer Article
    • Peptic ulcer facts
    • What is a peptic ulcer?
    • What causes of peptic ulcers?
    • What are symptoms of peptic ulcers?
    • How is a peptic ulcer diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for peptic ulcers?
    • What are the complications of peptic ulcers?
    • Peptic ulcer summary
  • Lactose Intolerance In lactose intolerance, the digestive system cannot digest lactose (the main sugar in milk). Symptoms of lactose intolerance...learn more »
    In This Article
    Lactose Intolerance Article
    • Lactose intolerance facts
    • What is lactose intolerance?
    • What causes lactose intolerance?
    • What are the symptoms of lactose intolerance?
    • How are lactase deficiency and lactose intolerance diagnosed?
    • Elimination diet
    • Milk challenge
    • Breath test
    • Blood glucose test
    • Stool acidity test
    • What are the sources of lactose in the diet?
    • How is lactose intolerance treated?
    • What are the long-term consequences of lactose intolerance?
    • What is new in lactose intolerance?
  • Indigestion (Dyspepsia, Upset Stomach) Dyspepsia (indigestion) is a functional disease in which the gastrointestinal organs, primarily the stomach and first part of the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Indigestion (Dyspepsia, Upset Stomach) Article
    • Dyspepsia (indigestion) facts
    • What is dyspepsia (indigestion)?
    • What are the symptoms of dyspepsia (indigestion)?
    • What causes dyspepsia (indigestion)?
    • What is the course of dyspepsia (indigestion)?
    • What are the complications of dyspepsia (indigestion)?
    • How is dyspepsia (indigestion) diagnosed?
    • Exclusion of other diseases
    • Specific tests of gastrointestinal function
    • How is dyspepsia (indigestion) treated and relieved?
    • What is a reasonable approach to the diagnosis and treatment of dyspepsia (indigestion)?
    • What is in the future for dyspepsia (indigestion)?
  • Anal Cancer Anal cancer, cancer located at the end of the large intestine, has symptoms that include anal or rectal bleeding, anal pain or...learn more »
    In This Article
    Anal Cancer Article
    • Anal cancer facts*
    • What is anal cancer?
    • What are the risk factors for anal cancer?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of anal cancer?
    • How is anal cancer diagnosed?
    • What affects the prognosis?
    • How is the staging of anal cancer determined?
    • What is recurrent anal cancer?
    • What is the treatment for anal cancer?
    • How does staging affect the treatment of anal cancer?
    • What are the treatment options for recurrent anal cancer?
    • Where can I find more information about anal cancer?
  • Oral Cancer The term oral cancer includes cancer of the mouth (oral cavity) and the back of the mouth (oropharynx). Red and white patches...learn more »
    In This Article
    Oral Cancer Article
    • Oral cancer facts*
    • What is the oral cavity?
    • What is cancer?
    • Who's at risk for oral cancer?
    • What are the symptoms of oral cancer?
    • How is oral cancer diagnosed?
    • How is oral cancer treated?
    • Methods of treatment
    • What are the side effects of treatment for oral cancer?
    • What is rehabilitation for oral cancer?
    • What happens after treatment for oral cancer?
    • What does the future hold for patients with oral cancer?
    • What resources are available to patients with oral cancer?
  • Hepatitis B (HBV, Hep B) The hepatitis B virus (HBV, hep B) is a unique, coated DNA virus belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses. The course of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hepatitis B (HBV, Hep B) Article
    • Hepatitis B facts
    • What is hepatitis?
    • How is the hepatitis B virus spread (transmitted)?
    • What are the symptoms of acute hepatitis B?
    • What are the symptoms of chronic hepatitis B?
    • How is hepatitis B diagnosed?
    • What is the role of a liver biopsy in chronic hepatitis B?
    • What is the natural course of chronic hepatitis B?
    • What medications are used to treat hepatitis B?
    • What are the effects of alcohol on hepatitis B?
    • What are the effects of immunosuppressive medications on hepatitis B?
    • What is delta hepatitis?
    • What about co-infection with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus?
    • What happens in co-infection with hepatitis B virus and HIV?
    • What is the role of liver transplantation in hepatitis B?
    • What can be done to prevent hepatitis B?
    • What is new in the treatment of hepatitis B?
  • Heartburn Heartburn is a burning sensation experienced from acid reflux (GERD). Symptoms of heartburn include chest pain, burning in the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heartburn Article
    • Heartburn facts
    • Heartburn definition
    • What causes heartburn?
    • What are the symptoms of heartburn?
    • What foods and beverages aggravate heartburn?
    • How is heartburn diagnosed?
    • What are treatments and home remedies for heartburn?
    • Lifestyle changes
    • OTC and prescription medications
    • Surgical procedures
    • Heartburn during pregnancy
    • How can heartburn be prevented?
  • Stomach Cancer Though the cause of stomach cancer is unknown, risk factors for stomach cancer include diet, H. pylori infection, smoking age,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stomach Cancer Article
    • Stomach cancer facts*
    • What is the stomach?
    • What is cancer, and how does stomach cancer spread?
    • What are risk factors and causes of stomach cancer?
    • What are symptoms of stomach cancer?
    • How is stomach cancer diagnosed?
    • How is staging determined?
    • What is the treatment for stomach cancer?
    • Surgery
    • Chemotherapy
    • Radiation therapy
    • How do I go about getting a second opinion?
    • What are some of the nutritional concerns of stomach cancer patients?
    • What are treatment options for cancer that blocks the digestive tract?
    • What follow-up care is necessary for stomach cancer patients? What about complementary and alternative medicine?
    • What support is there for cancer patients?
    • How can I take part in clinical trials for stomach cancer?
  • Gastroparesis Gastroparesis is a medical condition in which the muscle of the stomach is paralyzed by a disease of either the stomach muscle...learn more »
    In This Article
    Gastroparesis Article
    • Gastroparesis facts
    • What is gastroparesis?
    • What causes gastroparesis?
    • What are gastroparesis symptoms and signs?
    • How is gastroparesis diagnosed?
    • How is gastroparesis treated?
    • What is the prognosis (long-term outcome) for patients with gastroparesis?
    • What is new in gastroparesis?
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a GI (gastrointestinal disorder) with symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, increased flatus,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Article
    • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) definition
    • What causes irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • What are the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • How is the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) made?
    • What are the treatments for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • What medications are used to treat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • What about IBS and diet?
    • Is irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) related to small bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)?
    • What is the prognosis for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
  • Hiatal Hernia Hiatal hernia is a condition in which a thin membrane of tissue connects the esophagus with the diaphragm becomes week, and a...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hiatal Hernia Article
    • Hiatal hernia definition
    • What causes a hiatal hernia?
    • Is there one more than one type of hiatal hernia?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a hiatal hernia?
    • How is hiatal hernia diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for hiatal hernia?
    • Hiatal hernia medicaitons
    • Lifestyle changes
    • Hiatal hernia surgery
  • Salivary Gland Cancer Salivary gland cancer is cancer that affects the parotid glands, sublingual glands, or the submandibular glands. Risk factors...learn more »
    In This Article
    Salivary Gland Cancer Article
    • What is salivary gland cancer?
    • What increases the risk of salivary gland cancer?
    • What are symptoms and signs of salivary gland cancer?
    • What exams and tests are used to detect and diagnose salivary gland cancer?
    • What is the prognosis for salivary gland cancer?
    • What tests are done to determine if salivary gland cancer has spread?
    • How does salivary gland cancer spread in the body?
    • What are the stages for salivary gland cancer?
    • What is the treatment for salivary gland cancer?
    • How does staging affect treatment options?
  • Dysphagia Dysphagia or difficulty in swallowing, swallowing problems. Dysphagia is due to problems in nerve or muscle control. It is...learn more »
    In This Article
    Dysphagia Article
    • Dysphagia facts
    • What is dysphagia?
    • What causes dysphagia?
    • Physical obstruction of the pharynx or esophagus
    • Diseases of the brain
    • Diseases of the smooth muscle of the esophagus
    • Diseases of the skeletal muscle of the pharynx
    • Miscellaneous diseases
    • What are the symptoms of dysphagia?
    • Swallowing related symptoms
    • Non-swallowing related symptoms
    • What is the differential diagnosis for dysphagia?
    • How is dysphagia evaluated and the cause diagnosed?
    • How is dysphagia treated?
    • What is the prognosis for dysphagia?
    • What does the future offer for dysphagia?
  • Barrett's Esophagus Barrett's esophagus occurs as a complication of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), primarily in white males. GERD...learn more »
    In This Article
    Barrett's Esophagus Article
    • Barrett's esophagus facts
    • What is Barrett's esophagus?
    • Why is there so much interest in Barrett's esophagus?
    • What causes Barrett's esophagus?
    • Who develops Barrett's esophagus?
    • What is the specific abnormality in the inner lining (epithelium) of Barrett's esophagus?
    • What about the cancer that occurs in Barrett's esophagus?
    • What is dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus?
    • What is the risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the esophagus in Barrett's?
    • What are the symptoms of Barrett's esophagus?
    • How is GERD with or without Barrett's esophagus treated?
    • Why is it important to screen patients with GERD to diagnose Barrett's esophagus?
    • Why is it critical to be accurate in the diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus?
    • What does endoscopic biopsy surveillance in Barrett's esophagus involve?
    • How is high grade dysplasia managed?
    • How is low grade dysplasia managed?
    • What are the experimental approaches for treatment of high grade dysplasia?
    • What experimental options are there for Barrett's esophagus WITHOUT dysplasia?
    • What does the future hold for Barrett's esophagus?
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Intestinal Problems of IBD) The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The intestinal complications of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Intestinal Problems of IBD) Article
    • Intestinal bowel disease facts
    • What is inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)?
    • What are the intestinal complications of IBD?
    • Are the intestinal complications of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease different?
    • Do intestinal ulcers occur in IBD?
    • How are ulcers in IBD diagnosed and treated?
    • Does gastrointestinal bleeding occur in IBD?
    • How is gastrointestinal bleeding in IBD diagnosed and treated?
    • How do intestinal strictures form in IBD?
    • What are symptoms of intestinal strictures, and how are they diagnosed and treated?
    • What are intestinal fistulas?
    • What symptoms do fistulas cause and how are they diagnosed and treated?
    • What are fissures and how are they treated?
    • What is small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)?
    • Does colon cancer occur in IBD?
    • What should be done about polyps in IBD?
    • What is toxic megacolon and what are its causes and symptoms?
    • What kind of malabsorption occurs in IBD?
  • Achalasia Achalasia is a disease of the esophagus that mainly affects young adults. Abnormal function of nerves and muscles of the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Achalasia Article
    • Achalasia facts
    • What is achalasia?
    • How does the normal esophagus function?
    • How is esophageal function abnormal in achalasia?
    • What causes achalasia?
    • What are the symptoms of achalasia?
    • What are the complications of achalasia?
    • How is achalasia diagnosed?
    • How is achalasia treated?
  • Head and Neck Cancer Head and neck cancer is cancer of the oral cavity, salivary glands, paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, or lymph...learn more »
    In This Article
    Head and Neck Cancer Article
    • Head and neck cancer facts*
    • What is cancer?
    • What kinds of cancers are considered cancers of the head and neck?
    • How common are head and neck cancers?
    • What causes head and neck cancers?
    • What are common symptoms of head and neck cancers?
    • How are head and neck cancers diagnosed?
    • What health professionals treat patients with head and neck cancers?
    • How are head and neck cancers treated?
    • Are clinical trials (research studies) available for patients with head and neck cancers?
    • What rehabilitation or support options are available for patients with head and neck cancers?
    • Is follow-up treatment necessary? What does it involve?
    • What can people who have had head and neck cancer do to reduce the risk of developing a second primary (new) cancer?
  • Celiac Disease Celiac disease is a condition in which a person has inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa when exposed to gluten in the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Celiac Disease Article
    • Celiac disease definition
    • What causes celiac disease?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of celiac disease?
    • Are there other diseases or conditions associated with celiac disease?
    • How is celiac disease diagnosed?
    • What is latent celiac disease?
    • What is silent celiac disease?
    • What is the treatment for celiac disease?
    • What is refractory celiac disease?
    • What is the treatment for refractory celiac disease?
    • What are the complications of celiac disease?
    • What is a gluten-free diet?
  • Blood in the Stool (Rectal Bleeding) Rectal bleeding (blood in the stool) can be caused by a variety of benign conditions such as hemorrhoids, anal fissures,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Blood in the Stool (Rectal Bleeding) Article
    • Definition of blood in the stool (rectal bleeding)
    • What symptoms are associated with rectal bleeding?
    • What are some of the causes of blood in the stool (rectal bleeding)?
    • Hemorrhoids
    • Anal fissures
    • Diverticulitis, IBD, AVM, ischemic colitis, cancer, intussusception
    • Bacterial or viral infections
    • Ulcers or gastritis
    • Esophageal bleeding
    • Other causes
    • When should I call a doctor for blood in the stool (rectal bleeding)?
    • How is the cause of blood in the stool (rectal bleeding) diagnosed?
    • What are the treatments for blood in the stool (rectal bleeding)?
    • Can blood in the stool (rectal bleeding) be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis of blood in the stool (rectal bleeding)?
  • Schatzki's Ring Schatzki (Schatzki's) ring, is a narrow ring of tissue located just above the junction of the esophagus and stomach. The cause of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Schatzki's Ring Article
    • What is a Schatzki ring?
    • What are symptoms of a Schatzki Ring?
    • How is a Schatzki Ring diagnosed?
    • What treatment is for Schatzki Ring?
  • Carcinoid Syndrome and Carcinoid Tumor A carcinoid tumor is a tumor that develops from enterochromaffin cells. The important characteristic of carcinoid tumors that...learn more »
    In This Article
    Carcinoid Syndrome and Carcinoid Tumor Article
    • Carcinoid tumor facts
    • What is a carcinoid tumor?
    • What is carcinoid syndrome?
    • How common are carcinoid tumors and carcinoid syndrome?
    • What is the prognosis and natural history of carcinoid tumors?
    • Where do carcinoid tumors occur?
    • How are carcinoid tumors and carcinoid syndrome diagnosed?
    • How are carcinoid tumors and carcinoid syndrome treated?
  • GERD and GER (Acid Reflux) in Infants and Children GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) is the upward movement of stomach content, including acid, into the esophagus and...learn more »
    In This Article
    GERD and GER (Acid Reflux) in Infants and Children Article
    • What are GER and GERD in infants and children?
    • What causes GER and GERD in infants and children?
    • What are the symptoms of GER and GERD in infants and children?
    • How are GER and GERD in infants and children diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for GER in infants?
    • How are GER and GERD treated in infants and children?
    • What is the prognosis for GER and GERD in infants and children?
  • Reflux Laryngitis Acid backing up into the larynx (voice box), it causes reflux laryngitis. Irritation of the lining of the esophagus, larynx, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Reflux Laryngitis Article
    • Reflux laryngitis facts
    • Why does reflux laryngitis occur?
    • What are the typical symptoms of reflux laryngitis?
    • How are reflux laryngitis evaluated?
    • What are home remedies, OTC medications, and lifestyle changes (diet) that can help reflux?
    • What types of medications are used to treat reflux?
    • What are the difficulties in diagnosing reflux laryngitis?
  • Schistosomiasis Schistosomiasis (snail fever), a disease caused by parasites, causes a variety of symptoms and signs, such as cough, rash and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Schistosomiasis Article
    • Schistosomiasis facts
    • What is schistosomiasis?
    • What causes schistosomiasis?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of schistosomiasis?
    • How is schistosomiasis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for schistosomiasis?
    • When should people with schistosomiasis seek medical care?
    • What are the complications of schistosomiasis?
    • Can schistosomiasis be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis (outcome) for schistosomiasis?
  • Duodenal Diverticulum Duodenal diverticula (extramural or intramural), or duodenal diverticulum, is a pouch that is attached to the first part of the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Duodenal Diverticulum Article
    • What is a duodenal diverticulum?
    • What causes a duodenal diverticulum?
    • What complications are caused by a duodenal diverticulum?
    • How is a duodenal diverticulum diagnosed?
    • How is a duodenal diverticulum treated?
    • What about intramural diverticula?
  • Bowel Incontinence Bowel or fecal incontinence refers to the loss of voluntary control of stool, or bowel movements. The condition can include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bowel Incontinence Article
    • Bowel incontinence (fecal incontinence) definition
    • What causes bowel incontinence?
    • What are the symptoms of bowel incontinence?
    • How is bowel incontinence diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for bowel incontinence?
    • What about bowel incontinence in children?
    • Can bowel incontinence be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for bowel incontinence?
  • In This Article
    Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) Article
    • Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) definition
    • What are the causes of primary biliary cirrhosis?
    • What are the risk factors for primary biliary cirrhosis?
    • What are the signs and symptoms for primary biliary cirrhosis?
    • How is the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis made?
    • What is the treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis?
    • What are the complications of primary biliary cirrhosis?
    • Can primary biliary cirrhosis be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for someone with primary biliary cirrhosis?
  • The Digestion Process (Organs and Functions) Digestion is the complex process of turning food you eat into the energy you need to survive. The digestive process also involves...learn more »
    In This Article
    The Digestion Process (Organs and Functions) Article
    • Digestion definition
    • What is digestion?
    • The mouth
    • The pharynx and esophagus
    • The stomach and small intestine
    • The colon, rectum, and anus
    • Three accessory digestive organs (pancreas, liver, gallbladder)

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