Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
Dr. Schiffman received his B.S. degree with High Honors in biology from Hobart College in 1976. He then moved to Chicago where he studied biochemistry at the University of Illinois, Chicago Circle. He attended Rush Medical College where he received his M.D. degree in 1982 and was elected to the Alpha Omega Alpha Medical Honor Society. He completed his Internal Medicine internship and residency at the University of California, Irvine.
The primary symptom of emphysema is shortness of breath. It is a progressive complaint by affected individuals, worsening over time. Early in the disease, shortness of breath may occur with exercise and activity but symptoms gradually worsen and may occur at rest.
Diagnosis of emphysema is based upon history, physical examination, and pulmonary function studies.
Once present, emphysema is not curable, but its symptoms are controllable.
Medication regimens are available to preserve function for daily activities and quality of life for an individual with emphysema.
Oxygen supplementation may be required for a person with emphysema.
Exercise training and education are essential components of emphysema therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation.
Surgical options for individuals with emphysema have been developed and but are not expected to be available for widespread use.
Emphysema does not affect quantity of life, but rather quality of life. There are no studies that can predict life-expectancy in individuals with emphysema.
Emphysema is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that presents as
an abnormal and permanent enlargement of air spaces distal to the terminal
bronchioles. It frequently occurs in association with obstructive pulmonary
problems and chronic bronchitis. It is unusual for someone to have pure
emphysema unless it is a result of genetic abnormalities. Most people have
some combination of emphysema and chronic bronchitis with varying degrees of
airway bronchospasm. This condition is commonly referred to as COPD (and
in the United Kingdom, as chronic obstructive lung disease, COLD).
There are three morphological types of emphysema; 1) centriacinar, 2)
Centriacinar begins in the respiratory bronchioles and spreads
peripherally mainly in the upper half of the lungs and is usually associated
preferentially localizes around the septae of the lungs or pleura, often
associated with inflammatory processes, like prior lung infections.
What are the stages of emphysema?
Emphysema staging helps determine how much lung damage is present and how
severe it is. The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD)
uses FEV1 measurements to help with this determination:
I = mild
greater than or equal to 80% predicted
II = moderate
less than 80%, greater than 50% predicted
III = severe
Less than 50%, greater than 30% predicted
IV = very severe
Less than 30% predicted, or less than 50% in chronic respiratory failure