GENERIC NAME: efavirenz
BRAND NAME: Sustiva
DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: Efavirenz is an oral medication that is used for the treatment of infections with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Efavirenz is in a class of drugs called reverse transcriptase inhibitors which also includes zalcitabine (Hivid), zidovudine (Retrovir), didanosine (Videx), and lamivudine (Epivir). It is in a subclass of reverse transcriptase inhibitors referred to as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors that includes nevirapine (Viramune), and delavirdine (Rescriptor). During infection with HIV, the HIV virus multiplies within the body's cells. The newly-formed viruses then are released from the cells and spread throughout the body where they infect other cells. In this manner, the infection continually spreads to new, uninfected cells that the body is continually producing, and HIV infection is perpetuated. When producing new viruses, the HIV virus must manufacture new DNA for each virus. Reverse transcriptase is the enzyme that the virus uses to form new DNA. Efavirenz directly inhibits the activity of reverse transcriptase and blocks the production of DNA and new viruses. Efavirenz does not kill existing HIV virus and it is not a cure for HIV. Efavirenz was approved by the FDA in 1998.
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