John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunha's educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Diuretics have several other uses in addition treating edema.
A diuretic may be used as part of the treatment program for patients with hypertension.
(High blood pressure may be caused by salt retention, or caused by some
antihypertensive medications). In fact, most medications that dilate the blood vessels and reduce blood pressure, except for ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, lead to secondary salt retention by the kidneys.
Thiazide diuretics also have been used to prevent the formation of
kidney stones. These drugs reduce the urinary excretion of calcium, which is a component of the kidney stone.
Acetazolamide (Diamox) taken a few days before going to high altitudes, appears to reduce the tendency for people to develop
Edema At A Glance
Edema is a swelling, usually of the legs, due to the
accumulation of excessive fluid in the tissues.
The edema that occurs in diseases of the heart, liver,
and kidneys is mainly caused by salt retention, which holds the excess fluid
in the body.
In certain liver and kidney diseases, low levels of
albumin in the blood can contribute to fluid retention.
Heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, and a kidney
disease called nephrotic syndrome are the most common systemic diseases that
Excess fluid that accumulates in the lungs is called
Excess fluid that accumulates in the abdominal cavity
is called ascites.
Edema of unknown cause occurs primarily in women.
Varicose veins or thrombophlebitis (a blood clot in an
inflamed vein) of the deep veins in the legs causes edema that is localized to
Therapy for edema consists of treating the underlying conditions, restricting salt intake, and often using diuretics (medicines to induce urination).
Reference: Harrison's Principles of Internal
Medicine, McGraw-Hill, edited by Eugene Braunwald, et. al.,