Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (Ebola Virus Disease)

  • Medical Author:
    Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD

    Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.

  • Medical Editor: Jerry R. Balentine, DO, FACEP
    Jerry R. Balentine, DO, FACEP

    Jerry R. Balentine, DO, FACEP

    Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.

Ebola Symptoms & Signs

Symptoms of Ebola virus infection are similar to those produced by other hemorrhagic fever viruses and include

  • fever,
  • fatigue, malaise, and weakness,
  • reddened eyes,
  • joint and muscle pain,
  • headache,
  • nausea and vomiting.

Additional Ebola symptoms may include

  • diarrhea,
  • stomach pain and loss of appetite,
  • cough, sore throat, and difficulty swallowing,
  • rash,
  • hiccups,
  • chest pain,
  • breathing problems.

As the disease worsens in severity, symptoms can include bleeding at various sites within or outside of the body.

Read more about Ebola symptoms and signs

The latest news on Ebola virus disease

More articles on Ebola virus disease

Quick GuideEbola Virus: Outbreak, Symptoms, and Treatment

Ebola Virus: Outbreak, Symptoms, and Treatment

Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola virus disease) facts

  • Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a disease caused by four different strains of Ebola virus; these viruses infect humans and nonhuman primates. It is also referred to as Ebola virus disease.
  • Compared to most illnesses, Ebola hemorrhagic fever has a relatively short history since it was only discovered in 1976. There have been several Ebola outbreaks, including the 2014-2016 "unprecedented epidemic" in Africa, which has abated.
  • After an incubation period of two to 21 days, symptoms and signs of Ebola virus disease include
  • Progression of Ebola symptoms includes
  • Ebola viruses are mainly found in primates in Africa and possibly the Philippines; there are only occasional Ebola outbreaks of infection in humans. Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurs mainly in Africa in the Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Sudan, Ivory Coast, and Uganda, but it may occur in other African countries.
  • Ebola virus can be spread by direct contact with blood and secretions, by contact with blood and secretions that remain on clothing, and by needles and/or syringes or other medical supplies used to treat Ebola-infected patients.
  • Risk factors for Ebola hemorrhagic fever are travel to areas with endemic Ebola hemorrhagic fever and/or any close association with infected people.
  • Early clinical diagnosis is difficult as the symptoms are nonspecific; however, if the patient is suspected to have Ebola, the patient needs to be isolated and local and state health departments need to be immediately contacted.
  • Definitive diagnostic tests for Ebola hemorrhagic fever are ELISA and/or PCR tests; viral cultivation and biopsy samples may also be used.
  • There is no standard treatment for Ebola hemorrhagic fever; only supportive therapy and experimental treatment is available.
  • There are many complications from Ebola hemorrhagic fever causing a high mortality rate (reported mortality rates equal about 25%-100%).
  • Prevention of Ebola hemorrhagic fever is difficult; early testing and isolation of the patient plus barrier protection for caregivers (mask, gown, goggles, and gloves) is very important to prevent other people from getting infected.
  • Researchers are trying to understand the Ebola virus and pinpoint its ecological reservoirs to better understand how Ebola outbreaks occur. Researchers are actively trying to establish an effective vaccine against Ebola viruses.
  • A list of organizations where people can find more information about Ebola is provided.
Picture of the Ebola virus
Picture of the Ebola virus
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 2/27/2017

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