Dr. Perlstein received his Medical Degree from the University of Cincinnati and then completed his internship and residency in pediatrics at The New York Hospital, Cornell medical Center in New York City. After serving an additional year as Chief Pediatric Resident, he worked as a private practitioner and then was appointed Director of Ambulatory Pediatrics at St. Barnabas Hospital in the Bronx.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
Exposure to other children's colds
as often occurs in daycare centers, raises the
risk of contracting otitis media (ear infection or inflammation).
Bottlefeeding increases the risk of ear infection or inflammation in babies.
Middle ear pus causes pain and temporary hearing loss.
Rupture of the eardrum allows the pus to drain into the ear
Otitis media (ear infection or inflammation) is treated with observation, antibiotics, or
What is otitis media (middle ear infection or inflammation)?
Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear; however, many doctors consider
otitis media to be either inflammation or infection of the middle ear. "Otitis" means inflammation of the ear, and
"media" means middle. This inflammation often begins with infections that cause
sore throats, colds or other respiratory problems, and spreads to the middle ear.
Infections can be caused by viruses or bacteria, and can be acute or chronic.
Acute otitis media is usually of rapid onset and short duration. Acute otitis media is typically associated with fluid accumulation in the middle ear together with signs or symptoms of ear infection; a bulging eardrum usually accompanied by pain, or a perforated eardrum, often with drainage of purulent material (pus,
also termed suppurative otitis media). Fever can be present.
Chronic otitis media is a persistent inflammation of the middle ear, typically for a minimum of a month. This is in distinction to an acute ear infection (acute otitis media) that usually lasts only several weeks. Following an acute infection, fluid (an effusion) may remain behind the ear drum (tympanic membrane) for up to
three months before resolving. Chronic otitis media may develop after a prolonged period of time with fluid (effusion) or negative pressure behind the eardrum (tympanic membrane).
Chronic otitis media can cause ongoing damage to the middle ear and eardrum,
and there may be continuing drainage through a hole in the eardrum. Chronic otitis media often starts painlessly without fever. Ear pressure or popping can be persistent for months. Sometimes a subtle loss of hearing can be due to chronic otitis media.
Picture of the ear and adjacent structures.
Reviewed by William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR on 10/13/2011
Medical Author: Dennis S. Phillips, MD
Medical Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Viewer Asks: Are there any over-the-counter remedies for a child with an ear infection?
Dr. Phillips Answers: While there exist over-the-counter (OTC) remedies and medications that can alleviate the pain and symptoms of an ear infection, there are no OTC measures that kill the bacteria in the middle ear space that actually cause the infection. The "feel better" measures that work the best are oral pain medications like acetaminophen(Tylenol) or oral pain/antiinflammatory medications, like ibuprofen(Advil, Motrin). Topical anesthetic drops are also available that are applied into the ear canal and basically numb the inflamed ear drum from the outside. But since the infection is caused by bacteria in the middle ear space on the other side of the eardrum, nothing applied externally can help kill the bacteria through the intact eardrum.