What do researchers know about dystonia?
The cause of dystonia is not known. Researchers believe that dystonia results from an abnormality in or damage to the basal ganglia or other brain regions that control movement. There may be abnormalities in the brain's ability to process a group of chemicals called neurotransmitters that help cells in the brain communicate with each other. There also may be abnormalities in the way the brain processes information and generates commands to move. In most cases, no abnormalities are visible using magnetic resonance imaging or other diagnostic imaging.
The dystonias can be divided into three groups: idiopathic, genetic, and acquired.
- Idiopathic dystonia refers to dystonia that does not have a clear cause. Many instances of dystonia are idiopathic.
- There are several genetic causes of dystonia. Some forms appear to be inherited in a dominant manner, which means only one parent who carries the defective gene is needed to pass the disorder to their child. Each child of a parent having the abnormal gene will have a 50 percent chance of carrying the defective gene. It is important to note the symptoms may vary widely in type and severity even among members of the same family. In some instances, persons who inherit the defective gene may not develop dystonia. Having one mutated gene appears to be sufficient to cause the chemical imbalances that may lead to dystonia, but other genetic or even environmental factors may play a role. Knowing the pattern of inheritance can help families understand the risk of passing dystonia along to future generations.
- Acquired dystonia, also called secondary dystonia, results from environmental or other damage to the brain, or from exposure to certain types of medications. Some causes of acquired dystonia include birth injury (including hypoxia, a lack of oxygen to the brain, and neonatal brain hemorrhage), certain infections, reactions to certain drugs, heavy metal or carbon monoxide poisoning, trauma, or stroke. Dystonia can be a symptom of other diseases, some of which may be hereditary. Acquired dystonia often plateaus and does not spread to other parts of the body. Dystonia that occurs as a result of medications often ceases if the medications are stopped quickly.
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 12/18/2013
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Dystonia - Symptoms
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