- Understanding Depression Slideshow
- Take the Depression Quiz
- Depression Tips Slideshow
- Patient Comments: Persistent Depressive Disorder - Symptoms
- Patient Comments: Persistent Depressive Disorder - Diagnosis
- Patient Comments: Persistent Depressive Disorder - Causes
- Patient Comments: Persistent Depressive Disorder - Psychotherapy
- Patient Comments: Persistent Depressive Disorder - Antidepressants
- Patient Comments: Persistent Depressive Disorder - Additional Support
- Find a local Psychiatrist in your town
- Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia) facts
- What is persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia)?
- What are causes and risk factors for persistent depressive disorder?
- What are persistent depressive disorder symptoms and signs?
- How do health-care professionals diagnose persistent depressive disorder? What types of doctors treat persistent depressive disorder?
- What is the treatment for persistent depressive disorder? Are there any home remedies for persistent depressive disorder?
- What is the prognosis of persistent depressive disorder?
- Is it possible to prevent persistent depressive disorder?
- Are there support groups for people with persistent depressive disorder?
Quick GuideMyths and Facts About Depression
Are there support groups for people with persistent depressive disorder?
National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI)
2101 Wilson Boulevard Suite 302
Arlington, VA 22201
HelpLine: 800-950-NAMI 
Alim, et al. "Trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in an African-American primary care population." Journal of the National Medical Association 98.10 Oct. 2006: 1630-1636.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 2013.
Ballesteros, J. "Orphan comparisons and indirect meta-analysis: A case study on antidepressant efficacy in dysthymia comparing tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors by using general linear models." Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 25.2 (2005): 127–131.
Bhatia, S.K., and S.C. Bhatia. "Childhood and adolescent depression." American Family Physician 75.1 Jan. 2007: 73-80.
Bruder, G.E., J.W. Stewart, P.J. McGrath, et al. "Abnormal functional brain asymmetry in depression: evidence of biologic commonality between major depression and dysthymia." Psychiatry Research 196.2-3 Apr. 2012: 250-254.
Byers, A.L., K.E. Covinsky, K. Yaffe, et al. "Dysthymia and depression increase risk of dementia and mortality among older veterans." American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 20.8 Aug. 2012: 664-672.
Ciechanowski, P., et al. "Community-integrated, home-based depression treatment in older adults: a randomized controlled trial." Journal of the American Medical Association 291.13 Apr. 2004: 1569-1577.
Cuijpers, P., A. van Straten, J. Schuurmans, P. van Oppen, S.D. Hollon, and G. Andersson. "Psychotherapy for chronic major depression and dysthymia: a meta-analysis." Clinical Psychology Review 30.1 Feb. 2010: 51-62.
Gladstone, T.R.G., W.R. Beardslee, and E.E. O'Connor. "The prevention of adolescent depression." Psychiatric Clinics of North America 34.1 Mar. 2011: 35-52.
Hamidian, S., A. Omidi, S.M. Mousavinasab, and G. Naziri. "Comparison of the effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy accompanied by pharmacotherapy with pharmacotherapy alone in treating dysthymic patients." Iran Red Cres J 15.3 (2013).
Hellerstein, D.J., S.T. Batchelder, S.A. Little, M.J. Fedak, D. Kreditor, and J. Rosenthal. "Venlafaxine in the treatment of dysthymia: an open-label study." Clinical Psychiatry 60.12 Dec. 1999: 845-849.
Jimenez, D.E, M. Alegria, C. Chen, et al. "Prevalence of Psychiatric Illnesses among Ethnic Minority Elderly." Journal of American Geriatric Society 58.2 Feb. 2010: 256-264.
Koran, L.M., E.N. Aboujaoude, and N.N. Gamel. "Duloxetine treatment of dysthymia and double depression: an open-label trial." Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 68.5 May 2007: 761-765.
Lyoo, I.K., J.S. Kwon, S.J. Lee, M.H. Hann, C. Chang, Seo, S.I. Lee, and P.F. Renshaw. "Decrease in genu of the corpus callosum in medication-naïve, early-onset dysthymia and depressive personality disorder." Biological Psychiatry 52.12 (2002): 1134-1143.
Riolo, S.A., T.A. Nguyen, and C.A. King. "Prevalence of depression by race/ethnicity: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III." Journal of Public Health 95.6 June 2005: 998-1000.
Sansone, R.A., and L.A. Sansone. "Dysthymic disorder: forlorn and overlooked?" Psychiatry (Edgmont) 6.5 May 2009: 46-51.
Sansone, R.A., and L.A. Sansone. "Early- versus late-onset dysthymia: A meaningful clinical distinction?" Psychiatry (Edgmont) 6.11 Nov. 2009: 14-17.
Sovern, M.A. "Treatment of dysthymic disorder in older adults." University of Toledo (2008).