Drowning (cont.)

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What are the symptoms of drowning?

The consequences and symptoms of drowning vary widely. A drowning victim may show no symptoms and have no complaints, or may be found dead.

It is the rare person who is found thrashing in water. Instead, most drownings are unwitnessed and the person is found floating or submerged in the water.

For those who are alive, they may be anxious, confused, and short of breath. Again, it is the function of the brain and lungs that are the main concerns in drowning victims.

Special situations

Young children may have a mammalian diving reflex that occurs when drowning occurs in very cold water. When suddenly immersed in cold water less than 68F (20C), the victim can stop breathing, slow their heart rate dramatically, and shunt all the blood flow to the heart and brain. Though not common, these children may be resuscitated and return to normal function. Cases have been reported of survival, even after being underwater for an hour.

When should one seek medical care for drowning?

All individuals who are victims of drowning, even if they have no symptoms, should be evaluated by a health care professional. Sometimes, subtle information will be revealed that may make the diagnosis of an underlying medical condition.

How is drowning diagnosed?

The initial evaluation of any drowning victim will begin with a history of the events.

  • How old is the patient?
  • Are there any underlying medical problems?
  • Does the patient take any prescription or non-prescription medications? Is there a history of drug or alcohol use?
  • How long was the person unattended prior to being found?
  • Was there any potential trauma associated with the drowning (diving/falling into the water/falling out of a boat, falling through ice)?
  • Was there loss of consciousness before, during, or after the drowning episode? Did the patient have a witnessed seizure? Did they complain of chest pain and were a victim of sudden cardiac arrest before falling into the water?
  • Has there been any change in behavior after being removed from the water?
  • Has the person had vomiting?

Physical examination will begin with taking and monitoring the vital signs (the ABCs will be evaluated - airway, breathing, and circulation). Careful examination of the whole body will be required, especially focusing on the neurological examination to assess brain function. Lung and heart examination will also be performed.

If trauma or a diving injury is a consideration, the neck and spine may be immobilized to protect against potential spinal cord damage.

Laboratory and x-ray testing will be utilized depending upon the situation and potential injuries.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 7/3/2014

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Drowning - Treatment Question: If you know someone who drowned or nearly drowned, what type of emergency treatment was used?
Drowning - Prevention Question: Do you and your family know how to swim? Are you trained in CPR? Please share your experience.
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Drowning - Risk Factors Question: Do you know someone who drowned or nearly drowned? What were her/his risk factors (age, medical condition, etc.)?
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