Down Syndrome Overview Related Diseases & Conditions

Medical conditions are often related to other diseases and conditions. Our doctors have compiled a list of ailments related to the topic of Down Syndrome Overview. These conditions may be a cause or symptom of Down Syndrome Overview or be a condition for which you may be at increased risk.

  • Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is any state in which thyroid hormone production is below normal. Normally, the rate of thyroid hormone...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hypothyroidism Article
    • Hypothyroidism facts
    • What is hypothyroidism?
    • What are the thyroid hormones?
    • Thyroid hormone regulation - the chain of command
    • What causes hypothyroidism?
    • What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism?
    • How is hypothyroidism diagnosed?
    • How is hypothyroidism treated?
    • What is subclinical hypothyroidism?
    • What's best for you?
  • Leukemia Leukemia is a type of cancer of the blood cells in which the growth and development of the blood cells are abnormal. Strictly...learn more »
    In This Article
    Leukemia Article
    • Leukemia facts*
    • What is leukemia?
    • What are the types of leukemia?
    • Who is at risk for leukemia?
    • What are symptoms of leukemia?
    • How is leukemia diagnosed?
    • How is leukemia treated?
    • How does someone get a second opinion about leukemia treatment?
    • What happens after treatment for leukemia?
    • How important is nutrition and physical activity for leukemia patients?
    • What sort of follow-up care do leukemia patients need?
    • What are some sources of support?
    • What research is being done for leukemia?
    • What resources are available to patients with leukemia?
  • Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2) Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2) Article
    • Diabetes facts
    • What is diabetes?
    • What is the impact of diabetes?
    • What causes diabetes?
    • What are the different types of diabetes?
    • Type 1 diabetes
    • Type 2 diabetes
    • Other types of diabetes
    • What are diabetes symptoms?
    • How is diabetes diagnosed?
    • Why is blood sugar checked at home?
    • What are the acute complications of diabetes?
    • What are the chronic complications of diabetes?
    • What can be done to slow diabetes complications?
  • Glaucoma Glaucoma is a common eye condition in which the fluid pressure inside the eye rises because of slowed fluid drainage from the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Glaucoma Article
    • Glaucoma facts
    • What is glaucoma?
    • How common is glaucoma?
    • What causes glaucoma?
    • What are glaucoma risk factors?
    • What are the different types of glaucoma?
    • What are glaucoma symptoms and signs?
    • How is glaucoma diagnosed?
    • How often should someone be checked (screened) for glaucoma?
    • What is the treatment for glaucoma?
    • Glaucoma medications (eyedrops)
    • Glaucoma surgery or laser
    • Can glaucoma be prevented?
    • What is in the future for glaucoma?
  • Scoliosis Scoliosis causes an abnormal curvature of the spine. When the cause of scoliosis is unknown the disorder is described based on...learn more »
    In This Article
    Scoliosis Article
    • Scoliosis facts
    • What is scoliosis?
    • What causes scoliosis?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of scoliosis?
    • How is scoliosis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for scoliosis?
    • What is the prognosis for scoliosis?
    • Is there a cure for scoliosis?
    • Where can people get more information on scoliosis?
  • Eustachian Tube Problems (Problems Clearing Your Ears) The Eustachian tube is a membrane lined tube that connects the middle ear space to the back of the nose. Problems include partial...learn more »
    In This Article
    Eustachian Tube Problems (Problems Clearing Your Ears) Article
    • What is the Eustachian tube?
    • What are the functions of the Eustachian tube
    • What can cause Eustachian tube blockage?
    • How do altitude changes or air travel affect Eustachian tube problems?
    • How is Eustachian tube blockage treated?
    • Eustachian Tube Problems At A Glance
  • Dementia Dementia is a significant loss of intellectual abilities such as memory capacity, severe enough to interfere with social or...learn more »
    In This Article
    Dementia Article
    • Dementia facts*
    • Introduction to dementia
    • What is dementia?
    • What are the different kinds of dementia?
    • Alzheimer's disease
    • Vascular dementia
    • Lewy body dementia
    • Frontotemporal dementia
    • HIV-associated dementia
    • Huntington's disease
    • Dementia pugilistica
    • Corticobasal degeneration
    • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    • Other rare hereditary dementias
    • Secondary dementias
    • Dementias in children
    • What other conditions can cause dementia?
    • What conditions are not dementia?
    • What causes dementia?
    • What are the risk factors for dementia?
    • How is dementia diagnosed?
    • Is there any treatment for dementia?
    • Can dementia be prevented?
    • What kind of care does a person with dementia need?
    • What research is being done?
    • How can I help research?
    • Where can I get more information?
  • Sleep Apnea Sleep apnea is defined as a reduction or cessation of breathing during sleep. The three types of sleep apnea are central apnea,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Sleep Apnea Article
    • Sleep apnea facts
    • What is sleep apnea?
    • What are the types of sleep apnea?
    • What is central sleep apnea and what causes it?
    • What is obstructive sleep apnea and what causes it?
    • How common is obstructive sleep apnea?
    • What are obstructive sleep apnea symptoms?
    • What are some of the complications of sleep apnea?
    • How is obstructive sleep apnea diagnosed and evaluated?
    • What are the nonsurgical treatments for obstructive sleep apnea?
    • What are the surgical treatments for obstructive sleep apnea?
    • Why is it important to treat obstructive sleep apnea?
  • Cataracts A cataract is an eye disease that causes the eye's lens to become cloudy and opaque with decreased vision. Causes of cataracts...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cataracts Article
    • Facts about cataracts
    • What is a cataract?
    • What are the different types of cataracts?
    • What are causes of cataracts?
    • What are risk factors for cataracts?
    • What are the symptoms of cataracts?
    • What are the signs of cataracts?
    • How are cataracts diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for cataracts?
    • What are the different types of cataract surgery, and what risks are involved?
    • What are complications of cataracts?
    • What is the prognosis of cataracts?
    • Can cataracts be prevented?
    • Where can people get more information on cataracts?
  • Tongue Problems There are a variety of diseases and conditions that can cause tongue problems, discoloration, and soreness. Though most tongue...learn more »
    In This Article
    Tongue Problems Article
    • Tongue basics
    • What are common tongue problems?
    • What causes tongue problems?
    • What are the treatments for tongue problems?
    • White tongue
    • Red tongue
    • Black tongue
    • Increased size/swelling
    • Abnormalities of the tongue surface
    • Growths
    • Pain
    • Taste
    • Tongue movement
    • What are common tongue problems in infants and children?
    • What are common tongue problems in pregnancy?
    • How are tongue problems diagnosed?
    • What is the prognosis for tongue problems?
    • Can tongue problems be prevented?
  • Alzheimer's Disease Alzheimer's disease is a common cause of dementia. Symptoms and warning signs of Alzheimer's disease include memory loss,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Alzheimer's Disease Article
    • Alzheimer's disease facts*
    • What is dementia?
    • What is Alzheimer's disease?
    • Who develops Alzheimer's disease?
    • What are the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease?
    • Ten warning signs of Alzheimer's disease
    • What are the causes Alzheimer's disease?
    • What are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease?
    • How is the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease made?
    • What is the prognosis of a person with Alzheimer's disease?
    • What treatment and management options are available for Alzheimer's disease?
    • Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs)
    • Partial glutamate antagonists
    • Non-medication based treatments
    • Treatment of psychiatric symptoms
    • Potential and future therapies for Alzheimer's disease
    • Caring for the caregiver and Alzheimer's disease resources
    • National Institute on Aging home safety for people with Alzheimer's disease
    • Introduction
    • General safety concerns for persons with Alzheimer's disease
    • Is it safe to leave the person with Alzheimer's disease alone?
    • Home safety room-by-room
    • Home safety behavior-by-behavior
    • Special occasions/gatherings/holidays
    • Impairment of the senses
    • Driving
    • Natural disaster safety
    • Who would take care of the person with Alzheimer's disease if something happened to you?
    • Conclusion
    • Additional resources
  • Turner Syndrome Turner syndrome is an inherited chromosomal condition affecting women. Women with Turner syndrome do not have ovarian function,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Turner Syndrome Article
    • Turner syndrome facts
    • What is Turner syndrome?
    • What are the symptoms of Turner syndrome?
    • How is Turner syndrome diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for Turner syndrome?
    • Is Turner syndrome inherited?
  • Obesity Obesity is the state of being well above one's normal weight. A person has traditionally been considered to be obese if they are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Obesity Article
    • Obesity facts
    • What is obesity?
    • How common is obesity?
    • What are the health risks associated with obesity?
    • What causes obesity?
    • What are other factors associated with obesity?
    • How is body fat measured?
    • What about weight-for-height tables?
    • What is the body mass index (BMI)?
    • Does it matter where body fat is located?
    • What can be done about obesity?
    • What is the role of physical activity and exercise in obesity?
    • What is the role of diet in the treatment of obesity?
    • What is the role of medication in the treatment of obesity?
    • What about herbal fen/phen?
    • What about meal substitutes, artificial sweeteners, and OTC products?
    • What is the role of surgery in the treatment of obesity?
    • How can patients choose a safe and successful weight-loss program?
  • Klinefelter Syndrome Klinefelter syndrome, also referred to as XXY condition, is a genetic disease. Klinefelter syndrome affects mostly males....learn more »
    In This Article
    Klinefelter Syndrome Article
    • Klinefelter syndrome facts*
    • What is Klinefelter syndrome?
    • What are the symptoms of the XXY condition?
    • Physical development
    • Language development
    • Social development
    • What are the treatments for the XXY condition?
  • Genetic Disease Genetic disease is a disorder or condition caused by abnormalities in a person's genome. Types of genetic inheritance include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Genetic Disease Article
    • What is a genetic disease?
    • What are the different types of inheritance?
    • Single gene inheritance
    • Multifactorial inheritance
    • Chromosome abnormalities
    • Mitochondrial inheritance
    • What is the human genome?
  • Microcephaly Microcephaly is a genetic condition where the circumference of the head is smaller than normal due to underdeveloped brain....learn more »
    In This Article
    Microcephaly Article
    • Microcephaly facts*
    • What is microcephaly?
    • What causes microcephaly?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of microcephaly?
    • Is there any treatment for microcephaly?
    • What is the prognosis for microcephaly?
    • What research is being done on microcephaly?
    • For more information
  • Blindness Blindness is the state of being sightless. Causes of blindness include macular degeneration, stroke, cataract, glaucoma,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Blindness Article
    • Blindness facts
    • What is blindness?
    • What are the different types of blindness?
    • What causes blindness?
    • What are symptoms and signs of blindness?
    • How is blindness diagnosed?
    • What are treatments for blindness?
    • What is the prognosis for blindness?
    • When is someone considered legally blind?
    • Is blindness preventable?
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder (In Children and Adults) Autism in children and adults is a developmental disorder, characterized by impaired development in communication, social...learn more »
    In This Article
    Autism Spectrum Disorder (In Children and Adults) Article
    • Autism facts
    • What is autism?
    • How does autism impact the family?
    • What are the different types of autism?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of autism in children and adults?
    • Impairment of social interaction and communication
    • Behaviors
    • What causes autism?
    • Is autism genetic?
    • Do vaccines play a role in autism?
    • How is autism diagnosed in children and adults?
    • How is autism treated in children and adults?
    • What common sociobehavioral interventions are used to treat autism?
    • What are the common medications used to treat the symptoms of autism?
    • Can diet and supplements play a role in the treatment of autism?
    • What is the prognosis for children and adults with autism?
    • For more information about autism in children and adults
  • Spina Bifida and Anencephaly (Neural Tube Defects) Spina bifida is the most common neural tube defect in the United States. There are four types of spina bifida; 1) occulta, 2)...learn more »
    In This Article
    Spina Bifida and Anencephaly (Neural Tube Defects) Article
    • Spina bifida facts*
    • Introduction to spina bifida
    • What is spina bifida?
    • What are the different types of spina bifida?
    • What causes spina bifida?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of spina bifida?
    • What are the complications of spina bifida?
    • How is spina bifida diagnosed?
    • How is spina bifida treated?
    • Can spina bifida be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for spina bifida?
    • What research is being done on spina bifida?
  • Fragile X Syndrome Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited form of mental retardation. It's caused by a mutation on the X chromosome. People...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fragile X Syndrome Article
    • Fragile X syndrome facts*
    • What is Fragile X syndrome?
    • What causes Fragile X syndrome?
    • What keeps the FMR1 gene from producing FMRP in Fragile X syndrome?
    • Human cells 101
    • How many people are affected by Fragile X syndrome?
    • How is Fragile X syndrome inherited?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of Fragile X syndrome?
    • Intelligence and learning
    • Physical
    • Social and emotional
    • Speech and language
    • Sensory
    • Is there a cure for Fragile X syndrome?
    • Are there treatments for Fragile X syndrome?
    • Educational options
    • Therapeutic options
    • Medication options
    • What are the options for adults who have Fragile X syndrome?
    • What should I do if I find out someone in my family has Fragile X syndrome?
    • What is being done to develop treatments or a cure for Fragile X syndrome?
    • Where can I go for more information about Fragile X syndrome?
  • Childhood Obesity Fast food consumption and lack of exercise are just a couple of causes of childhood obesity. Health effects of childhood obesity...learn more »
    In This Article
    Childhood Obesity Article
    • Childhood obesity facts
    • What is childhood obesity? How is childhood obesity diagnosed?
    • How prevalent is childhood obesity?
    • What causes childhood obesity?
    • What are childhood obesity symptoms and signs?
    • What are risk factors for childhood obesity?
    • What are the risks, complications, and long-term health effects of childhood obesity?
    • What is the treatment for childhood obesity?
    • Can childhood obesity be prevented?
    • What research is being done on childhood obesity?
    • Where can people find more information on childhood obesity?
  • Hirschsprung's Disease Hirschsprung's disease (Hirschsprung), is a disease of the nerve cells of of the large intestine. The primary symptom of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hirschsprung's Disease Article
    • What is Hirschsprung's disease?
    • What are the large intestine, colon, rectum, and anus?
    • Why does Hirschsprung's disease cause constipation?
    • What causes Hirschsprung's disease?
    • What are the symptoms of Hirschsprung's disease?
    • How is Hirschsprung's disease treated?
    • What will my child's life be like after surgery?
    • If I have more children, will they also have Hirschsprung's disease?
    • Hirschsprung's Disease At A Glance
  • Congenital Heart Defects Congenital heart defects are heart problems that are present at birth. Genetics may play a role in some heart defects. Symptoms...learn more »
    In This Article
    Congenital Heart Defects Article
    • Congenital heart defects facts
    • What are congenital heart defects?
    • How the heart works
    • What are the types of congenital heart defects?
    • What are other names for congenital heart defects?
    • What causes congenital heart defects?
    • What are the signs and symptoms and signs of congenital heart defects?
    • How are congential heart defects diagnosed??
    • How are congenital heart defects treated?
    • Living with a congenital heart defect
  • Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common type of cancer in children. Symptoms and signs include fever, easy...learn more »
    In This Article
    Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Article
    • What is childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)?
    • What are causes and risk factors for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)?
    • What are symptoms and signs of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)?
    • How is childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) diagnosed?
    • What is the prognosis for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)?
    • What are the stages of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)?
    • What is recurrent childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)?
    • What is the treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)?
    • What treatments are being tested in clinical trials?
    • What is the treatment for recurrent childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)?
  • Trisomy 18 Trisomy 18 is an chromosomal condition that causes severe birth defects in newborns. Many babies born with trisomy 18 do not live...learn more »
    In This Article
    Trisomy 18 Article
    • Trisomy 18 facts
    • What is trisomy 18?
    • What are the chromosome basics of trisomy 18?
    • What are the characteristic signs and symptoms of trisomy 18?
    • How common is trisomy 18?
    • How is trisomy 18 diagnosed?
    • Can people with trisomy 18 survive to adulthood?
    • Is there any treatment for trisomy 18?
  • Noonan Syndrome Noonan syndrome is a genetic disorder that causes birth defects (congenital malformations) such as short stature, caved-in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Noonan Syndrome Article
    • Noonan syndrome facts*
    • What is Noonan syndrome?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of Noonan syndrome?
    • How common is Noonan syndrome?
    • What genes are related to Noonan syndrome?
    • How do people inherit Noonan syndrome?
    • What other names do people use for Noonan syndrome?
  • Genetic Counseling Your health care provider may refer you to a genetic professional. Universities and medical centers also often have affiliated...learn more »
    In This Article
    Genetic Counseling Article
    • What are genetic professionals and what do they do?
    • What is genetic counseling and evaluation?
    • How do I find a genetic professional?
    • How do I decide whether I need to see a geneticist or other specialist?
  • Pregnancy Planning Pregnancy planning is important to help prevent exposure of the mother and fetus to potentially harmful medications and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy Planning Article
    • Pregnancy Planning Facts
    • What is pregnancy planning and why is it important?
    • What are pregnancy symptoms?
    • What is a pregnancy calculator and calendar?
    • Who effective are home pregnancy tests?
    • How can diet and nutrition affect early pregnancy?
    • How does alcohol affect pregnancy?
    • How do high blood pressure and diabetes affect pregnancy?
    • What are examples of commonly-used medications that are dangerous in pregnancy?
    • How do kidney and heart disease affect pregnancy?
    • What infections affect pregnancy?
    • What inherited (genetic) diseases can play a role in pregnancy planning?
    • Is it safe to exercise during pregnancy?
    • Can I travel by air during pregnancy?
    • Can I have intercourse during pregnancy?
    • How soon after stopping birth control can I become pregnant?
    • How do we maximize our chances of becoming pregnant?
    • Can I do something to help my chances of conceiving a boy or a girl?
  • Strabismus (Crossed Eyes) Strabismus, or crossed eyes, is a condition in which the eyes do not align in the usual way. The condition may be congenital or...learn more »
    In This Article
    Strabismus (Crossed Eyes) Article
    • Introduction to Strabismus
    • What causes Strabismus?
    • How is Strabismus treated?
    • Is surgery and option to treat Strabismus?

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