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- Patient Comments: Double Vision - Causes
- Patient Comments: Double Vision - Symptoms
- Patient Comments: Double Vision - Diagnosis
- Patient Comments: Double Vision - Treatment
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- What is double vision?
- What causes double vision?
- What are the symptoms and signs of double vision?
- How do health-care professionals diagnose the cause of double vision?
- What is the treatment for double vision?
- What types of doctors treat double vision?
- Is it possible to prevent double vision?
- What is the prognosis for double vision?
What are the symptoms and signs of double vision?
Images may appear to overlap each other or may appear adjacent to each other. Diplopia may vary depending on the direction of gaze or with tilting or turning of the head.
One of the most critical features to determine is whether the diplopia is monocular or binocular. In monocular diplopia, the double vision is caused by a condition within one or both eyes and does not resolve when one eye is covered. In binocular diplopia, the eyes are misaligned. Each eye sees a single image when working alone, as when one eye is covered, but when both eyes are open the brain perceives two adjacent images.
How do health-care professionals diagnose the cause of double vision?
A thorough evaluation of double vision begins with a detailed history of the diplopia, including onset (gradual or sudden), duration, frequency (intermittent or constant), and variability with head position or eye gaze, noting any associated symptoms (pain, headache, nausea, and weight loss among others), and a complete history of past and current medical conditions. The physical examination includes measuring the visual acuity in each eye and assessing whether the diplopia is monocular or binocular. Careful examination of the eyes' alignment in various head positions is performed if the diplopia is binocular. A complete eye examination, which may include dilating the eyes, is performed to look for any ocular or orbital abnormalities. Particular attention is paid to the pupils and eyelid position if a neurologic cause is suspected. In some instances, specialized imaging (topography, CT, MRI, etc.) and other tests are needed to further investigate possible causes. When a life- or vision-threatening cause is suspected, time may is of the essence.