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- Breast cancer
- High blood pressure (hypertension)
- Cervical cancer
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
- Hypercholesterolemia (hyperlipidemia, dyslipidemia)
- Type II diabetes mellitus
- Cancer of colon and rectum / polyps of colon and rectum
- Bladder cancer
- Melanoma and other skin cancers
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Cancer of colon and rectum / polyps of colon and rectum
Scientists believe that majority of the colon cancers develop from colonic polyps (precancerous growths on the inner surface of the colon). These tumors may become malignant, with the cells invading locally or spreading (metastasizing) to other parts of the body.
Colon cancer is preventable by removing colon polyps before they evolve into a cancer. Colon cancer is curable if removed before spread occurs.
- Stool occult blood test: Stool occult blood test is a chemical test to detect trace amounts of blood in the stool. It is inexpensive and easily performed, though not always accurate. Some cancers are not detected by the test, and many positive tests are caused by other problems beside cancer.
- Flexible sigmoidoscopy: Flexible sigmoidoscopy is a relatively quick and easy office procedure which allows direct visualization and biopsy of suspicious lesions from the distal portion of the colon. The procedure is uncomfortable, and it is less accurate than a full colonoscopy.
- Colonoscopy: Colonoscopy allows visualization of the entire colon and is the most complete and thorough test. It requires intravenous sedation, is much more expensive, and is not covered by some insurance plans as a screening procedure. Although screening colonoscopies may have a slightly higher risk of complications than flexible sigmoidoscopies, both screening tests are very safe when performed by trained professionals.
Who to test and how often
All healthy subjects should have stool occult blood tests and flexible sigmoidoscopy at age 50, followed by stool occult blood annually and flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years.
Alternatively, instead of flexible sigmoidoscopy, all healthy subjects can undergo screening colonoscopy at age 50 and then every 10 years if tests remain normal and there is no prior history of polyps or cancer.
Higher risk patients (individuals with a family history of colonic polyps or cancer, long standing ulcerative colitis, or a prior personal history of colon polyps or cancer) require colonoscopy earlier and more frequently.
Benefits of early detection
Stool occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy have been documented to reduce colon cancer mortality by:
- Preventing colon cancer by identifying and removing polyps before they become cancerous.
- Increasing cancer cure rate by identifying early cancer at a treatable stage before the cancer has spread (metastasized).