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- High blood pressure (hypertension)
- Hypercholesterolemia (hyperlipidemia, dyslipidemia)
- Type II diabetes mellitus
- HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
- Cancer of colon and rectum/polyps of colon and rectum
- Prostate cancer
- Melanoma and other skin cancers
- Bladder cancer
Quick GuideMen's Health: Essential Screening Tests Every Man Needs
Tests or procedures for bladder cancer
- Urine examination for blood cells. This may be done by dipstick tests with confirmation by microscopic examination of the urine, or by initial microscopic examination.
- Bladder cancer can cause either gross hematuria (visible blood in the urine) or microscopic hematuria (blood in the urine only visible with a microscope). It is important to note that bladder cancer is only one of many causes of blood in the urine.
Who to test and how often
All individuals who are former or current cigarette smokers or who have a history of occupational exposure to certain chemicals often used in the dye, leather, tire and rubber industries should have a urine examination for blood periodically after age 60.
Benefits of early detection
- Early bladder cancer may produce no symptoms and no visible bleeding in the urine, and blood in the urine commonly microscopic.
- Treatment can be effective if the cancer is detected early, and survival is strongly associated with stage of disease at time of treatment.
- Cessation of cigarette smoking is always advisable.
Medically reviewed by Joseph Palermo, DO; American Osteopathic Board Certified Internal Medicine
REFERENCE: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. Braumwald E, Fauci AS, et al. 17th Edition. 2007. McGraw Hill