Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.
HIV is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired
immune deficiency syndrome).
While modern anti-HIV medications have significantly improved long-term survival
and quality of life of HIV infected individuals, there is still no cure or
vaccine. HIV infection is still eventually lethal in everyone who is infected.
Therefore, preventing the spread of HIV is the most important step in preventing
illness and death due to HIV infection.
Tests procedures for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Screening blood test for antibodies to HIV is called an
Confirmatory test for antibodies to HIV is called a
HIV-infected individuals can remain free of symptoms for many years; they
will know if they are infected ONLY if a blood test for HIV is done. HIV testing
can be performed by a physician or at a testing center.
Who should be tested for HIV
The following individuals should be routinely offered HIV testing:
routine Screening is gaining more and more support as HIV is becoming a
Most infected individuals will develop a positive HIV blood test within 3
months of being exposed to HIV. If the HIV test at 3 months is negative and
there are risk factors for infection, the test should be repeated in another 3
Benefits of early detection
Theoretically, early treatment with anti-HIV medications may help the body's
immune system fight the virus. So far, early treatment cannot cure or eradicate
the virus. Therefore, early detection is most important to prevent the spread of
Early detection, if it leads to life style changes , can also decrease the
spread of the disease.
The virus is present in the blood, genital, and other body secretions of
virtually all infected individuals, regardless of whether or not they have
symptoms. The HIV virus is spread from one person to another when these
secretions come in contact with the vagina, anal area, mouth, or eyes, or with a
break in the skin, such as from a cut, bruise, sore, or puncture by a needle.
Sexual transmission of HIV has been described from men to men, men to women,
women to men, and women to women through vaginal, anal, and oral sex.
Prevention of spread of HIV
Abstinence from sex until both partners are certain that they are not
infected (for example both partners test negative for HIV antibody after the
last potential exposure). While most newly infected individuals test positive by
two months after infection, up to 5% are still negative after six months with
routine testing. If abstinence is not possible, use latex barriers such as a
condoms and a dental dam (piece of latex that prevents vaginal secretions from
coming in direct contact with the mouth.)
Avoid sharing of needles, razor blades, and toothbrushes.
Health care workers who experience a needle stick or exposure of the eyes,
mouth, or injured skin from an infected person must take anti-HIV medication in
order to reduce the risk of developing infection.