Diabetes Mellitus Related Diseases & Conditions

Medical conditions are often related to other diseases and conditions. Our doctors have compiled a list of ailments related to the topic of Diabetes Mellitus. These conditions may be a cause or symptom of Diabetes Mellitus or be a condition for which you may be at increased risk.

  • Kidney Pain Kidney pain has a variety of causes and symptoms. Infection, injury, trauma, bleeding disorders, and less common conditions may...learn more »
    In This Article
    Kidney Pain Article
    • What are the kidneys?
    • Where are the kidneys located?
    • What is the function of the kidneys?
    • What are the symptoms of kidney pain?
    • What are some of the kidney conditions and diseases that cause kidney pain?
    • When should I see my doctor about kidney pain?
    • What are common tests are available to diagnose kidney diseases?
    • How is kidney pain treated?
  • Kidney Stones Kidney stones are solid masses of crystalline material that form in the kidneys. Symptoms of kidney stones can include pain,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Kidney Stones Article
    • Kidney stone facts
    • What is a kidney stone?
    • Who is at risk for kidney stones?
    • What causes kidney stones?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of kidney stones?
    • How are kidney stones diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for kidney stones? How long does it take to pass a kidney stone?
    • Can kidney stones be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for kidney stones?
  • Kidney Failure Kidney failure can occur from an acute event or a chronic condition or disease. Prerenal kidney failure is caused by blood loss,...learn more »
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with rickets, cancer, cardiovascular disease, severe asthma in children and cognitive...learn more »
  • Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension) Low blood pressure, also referred to as hypotension, is blood pressure that is so low that it causes symptoms or signs due to the...learn more »
  • Muscle Spasms Muscle spasms are involuntary muscle contractions that come on suddenly and are usually quite painful. Dehydration, doing...learn more »
  • Cellulitis Cellulitis is an acute spreading bacterial infection below the surface of the skin characterized by redness, warmth,...learn more »
  • Blood Clots Blood clots can occur in the venous and arterial vascular system. Blood clots can form in the heart, legs, arteries, veins,...learn more »
  • Ingrown Toenail Ingrown toenails are caused by the growth of the toenail into the surrounding nail fold. Symptoms include toe pain, swelling,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Ingrown Toenail Article
    • Ingrown toenail facts
    • What are ingrown toenails?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of an ingrown toenail?
    • What causes ingrown toenails?
    • Are some people more prone to ingrown toenails?
    • Which nails are most commonly affected by ingrown toenails?
    • What causes infections in ingrown toenails?
    • How do physicians diagnose an ingrown toenail?
    • What are possible complications of ingrown toenails?
    • How do people treat an ingrown toenail at home?
    • When should someone seek medical treatment for an ingrown toenail?
    • What kind of doctor treats ingrown toenails?
    • What is the treatment for ingrown toenails?
    • What types of nail surgery are used for ingrown toenails?
    • How can people prevent ingrown toenails from recurring?
    • Ingrown toenail do's
    • Ingrown toenail dont's
    • What is the prognosis for an ingrown toenail?
  • Corns Corns and calluses are sometimes painful areas of thickened skin that appear between the toes and fingers or on the soles of the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Corns Article
    • Corns and calluses facts
    • What are corns and calluses?
    • Why do corns and calluses develop?
    • What are risk factors for corns and calluses?
    • What are symptoms and signs of corns and calluses?
    • How are corns and calluses diagnosed?
    • How can corns and calluses be treated?
    • When should someone seek professional treatment for corns or calluses?
    • What is the prognosis for corns and calluses?
    • How can corns and calluses be prevented?
  • Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Congestive heart failure (CHF) refers to a condition in which the heart loses the ability to function properly. Heart disease,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Article
    • Congestive heart failure facts
    • What is congestive heart failure (CHF)?
    • What causes congestive heart failure?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure?
    • What are the risk factors for congestive heart failure?
    • How is congestive heart failure diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for congestive heart failure?
    • What lifestyle changes can help treat congestive heart failure?
    • Exercise
    • Diet
    • Fluid regulation
    • Maintaining weight
    • What is the long term prognosis for patients with congestive heart failure?
    • Can congestive heart failure be prevented?
  • Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the US. This conditions is caused by inflammation of the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Article
    • Introduction to Hashimoto's thyroiditis
    • What causes Hashimoto's thyroiditis?
    • What are the symptoms of Hashimoto's thyroiditis?
    • How is Hashimoto's thyroiditis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment of Hashimoto's thyroiditis?
    • Should I be concerned if I have Hashimoto's thyroiditis and want to become pregnant?
    • Conclusions
  • Fatty Liver Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to a wide spectrum of liver disease ranging from simple fatty liver (steatosis),...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fatty Liver Article
    • Nonalcoholic fatty liver facts
    • What are nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis?
    • Why is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease important?
    • What causes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?
    • What is the difference between nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis?
    • What is the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, and diabetes?
    • What is the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome?
    • What are the symptoms of fatty liver?
    • How is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease diagnosed?
    • What are the other causes of fatty liver?
    • What are the complications of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?
    • How is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease treated?
    • Weight loss and exercise
    • Diet
    • Medications and other treatment options
    • Bariatric surgery
    • Liver transplant
    • What is the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease?
    • What diseases are associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?
    • Does nonalcoholic fatty liver disease occur in children?
  • Hemochromatosis (Iron Overload) Hereditary hemochromatosis (iron overload) is an inherited disorder in which there is excessive accumulation of iron in the body....learn more »
    In This Article
    Hemochromatosis (Iron Overload) Article
    • What is hereditary hemochromatosis?
    • How is hereditary hemachromatosis inherited?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of hemochromatosis?
    • How is hemochromatosis diagnosed?
    • How is hemochromatosis treated?
    • What about diet recommendations for people with hemochromatosis?
    • What are the recommendations for screening for liver cancer in hemochromatosis?
  • Fungal Nails Fungal nails (onychomycosis) may be caused by many species of fungi but the most common is Trichophyton rubrum. Distal subungal...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fungal Nails Article
    • What other conditions can be mistaken for fungal nails?
    • What causes fungal nails, and what are some of the risk factors?
    • Is nail fungus contagious?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of fungal nails?
    • How are fungal nails diagnosed?
    • How is nail fungus treated?
    • Are oral medications for nail fungus toxic?
    • What about the cost of oral medications?
    • How do you prevent fungal nails?
    • What is the prognosis of fungal nails?
    • Conclusion
  • Insulin Resistance Insulin resistance is the diminished ability of cells to respond to the action of insulin in transporting glucose (sugar) from...learn more »
    In This Article
    Insulin Resistance Article
    • Insulin resistance facts
    • What is insulin resistance?
    • What causes insulin resistance?
    • What is the relationship between insulin resistance and diabetes?
    • What medical conditions are associated with insulin resistance?
    • Who is at risk for insulin resistance?
    • How is insulin resistance diagnosed?
    • How is insulin resistance managed?
    • Lifestyle changes (diet, weight loss, exercise)
    • Medications
    • What's new in insulin resistance?
  • Fainting (Syncope) Fainting, also referred to as blacking out, syncope, or temporary loss of consciousness has many causes. Often a person will have...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fainting (Syncope) Article
    • Fainting (syncope) facts
    • Introduction to fainting (syncope)
    • What causes fainting (syncope)?
    • Heart rhythm changes
    • Heart structural conditions
    • Heart valve conditions
    • Sudden cardiac death
    • Postural hypotension
    • Vasovagal syncope
    • Anemia
    • Dehydration
    • Orthostatic hypotension
    • Vertebrobasilar artery disease
    • Electrolyte imbalance
    • Other medications and drugs
    • Pregnancy
    • What are the signs and symptoms of fainting (syncope)?
    • How is fainting (syncope) diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for fainting (syncope)?
    • Can fainting (syncope) be prevented?
  • Restless Leg Syndrome Restless leg syndrome (RLS or restless legs syndrome) is a common cause for painful legs that typically eases with motion, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Restless Leg Syndrome Article
    • Restless leg syndrome facts
    • What is restless leg syndrome (RLS)?
    • What causes restless leg syndrome?
    • What are the symptoms of restless leg syndrome?
    • How is restless leg syndrome diagnosed?
    • Can other conditions mimic restless leg syndrome?
    • What is the treatment for restless leg syndrome?
    • What medications are used to treat restless leg syndrome?
    • Are there any remedies or complimentary/alternative treatments for restless leg syndrome?
  • Dry Skin Dry skin (xeroderma) may be caused by external factors, like cold temperatures, low humidity, harsh soaps, and certain...learn more »
    In This Article
    Dry Skin Article
    • Dry skin facts
    • What is dry skin?
    • What causes dry skin?
    • What are signs and symptoms of dry skin?
    • How is dry skin diagnosed?
    • Does dry skin cause winter itch?
    • Do genetics play a role in dry skin?
    • What medical conditions cause dry skin?
    • Do any medications cause dry skin?
    • What is the treatment for dry skin?
    • What are possible complications of dry skin?
    • What are some home remedies for dry skin?
    • How can dry skin be prevented?
    • What are the best products for dry skin?
  • Dry Mouth (Xerostomia) Dry mouth is a common side effect of many prescription and non-prescription drugs and certain medical conditions. Symptoms of dry...learn more »
    In This Article
    Dry Mouth (Xerostomia) Article
    • What is dry mouth?
    • How common is dry mouth?
    • What are the benefits of saliva?
    • What causes dry mouth?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of dry mouth?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose dry mouth?
    • What is the treatment for dry mouth?
    • Is it possible to prevent dry mouth?
    • What is the prognosis of dry mouth?
  • Peripheral Vascular Disease Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) refers to diseases of the blood vessels (arteries and veins) located outside the heart and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Peripheral Vascular Disease Article
    • Peripheral vascular disease facts
    • What is peripheral vascular disease?
    • What is atherosclerosis?
    • How does atherosclerosis cause disease?
    • What are potential complications of peripheral artery disease?
    • What are the other causes of peripheral vascular diseases?
    • Who is at risk for peripheral artery disease?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of peripheral artery disease?
    • How is peripheral artery disease diagnosed?
    • What are the treatments for peripheral artery disease?
    • Lifestyle changes
    • Supervised exercise
    • Medications
    • Angioplasty
    • Surgery
  • Peripheral Neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is a problem with the functioning of the nerves outside of the spinal cord. Symptoms may include numbness,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Peripheral Neuropathy Article
    • Peripheral neuropathy facts
    • What is peripheral neuropathy?
    • What causes peripheral neuropathy?
    • What are the symptoms of peripheral neuropathy?
    • How is peripheral neuropathy diagnosed?
    • Is there any treatment for peripheral neuropathy?
    • Can peripheral neuropathy be prevented?
  • Hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia is a serious health problem for diabetics. There are two types of hyperglycemia, 1) fasting, and 2)postprandial or...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hyperglycemia Article
    • Hyperglycemia facts
    • What is Hyperglycemia?
    • What causes hyperglycemia?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia?
    • How is hyperglycemia diagnosed?
    • How is hyperglycemia treated?
    • What are the complications of hyperglycemia?
  • Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is a syndrome caused by low blood sugar. Symptoms of hypoglycemia include palpitations, trembling, intense hunger,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hypoglycemia Article
    • What is hypoglycemia?
    • Who is at risk for hypoglycemia?
    • I thought high blood sugar was bad. Why is low blood sugar also bad?
    • Can the body protect itself from hypoglycemia?
    • What are symptoms of hypoglycemia and how low is too low?
    • How is hypoglycemia treated?
    • Is there anything else that should be done to manage hypoglycemia?
  • Gastroparesis Gastroparesis is a medical condition in which the muscle of the stomach is paralyzed by a disease of either the stomach muscle...learn more »
    In This Article
    Gastroparesis Article
    • Gastroparesis facts
    • What is gastroparesis?
    • What causes gastroparesis?
    • What are gastroparesis symptoms and signs?
    • How is gastroparesis diagnosed?
    • How is gastroparesis treated?
    • What is the prognosis (long-term outcome) for patients with gastroparesis?
    • What is new in gastroparesis?
  • Gum Disease Gum disease is caused by plaque and may result in tooth loss without proper treatment. Symptoms and signs of gum disease...learn more »
    In This Article
    Gum Disease Article
    • What is gum disease (gingivitis)?
    • What is the difference between gingivitis and periodontital disease?
    • What causes gum disease?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of gum disease?
    • How is gum disease diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for gum disease?
    • Are home remedies or natural treatments effective for gum disease?
    • Can gum disease be reversed?
    • Is gum disease associated with other health problems?
    • How is gum disease managed in children?
    • How is gum disease managed in pregnancy?
    • Can gum disease be prevented?
    • Is gum disease contagious?
  • Graves' Disease Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid. Some of the symptoms of Graves' disease include hand tremors,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Graves' Disease Article
    • Graves' disease facts*
    • What is Graves' disease?
    • What are the symptoms of Graves' disease?
    • Who gets Graves' disease?
    • What causes Graves' disease?
    • How do I find out if I have Graves' disease?
    • How is Graves' disease treated?
    • What could happen if Graves' disease is not treated?
    • Does pregnancy affect the thyroid?
    • Do I need a thyroid test if I become pregnant?
    • I have Graves' disease and want to have a baby. What should I do before I try to become pregnant?
    • How is Graves' disease managed during pregnancy?
    • Can I breastfeed if I am taking antithyroid medicine for Graves' disease?
    • For more information on Graves' disease
  • Cushing's Syndrome Cushing's syndrome, sometimes referred to as hypercortisolism, is a hormonal disorder caused by prolonged exposure to high levels...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cushing's Syndrome Article
    • Cushing's syndrome facts*
    • What is Cushing's syndrome?
    • What are the symptoms of Cushing's syndrome?
    • What causes Cushing's syndrome?
    • How is Cushing's syndrome diagnosed?
    • How is Cushing's syndrome treated?
    • What research is being done on Cushing's syndrome?
    • For more information
  • Dry Eyes Dry eyes are caused by an imbalance in the tear-flow system of the eye, but also can be caused by the drying out of the tear...learn more »
    In This Article
    Dry Eyes Article
    • Dry eye syndrome facts
    • What is dry eye syndrome?
    • What causes dry eye syndrome?
    • What is the impact of dry eye syndrome?
    • What are dry eye syndrome symptoms and signs?
    • What are the complications of dry eye syndrome?
    • What are the risk factors for dry eye syndrome?
    • What is the treatment for dry eye syndrome?
    • Can self-care treatments and remedies help alleviate dry eyes?
    • What is the medical treatment for dry eye syndrome?
    • What medications are used to treat dry eye syndrome?
    • Can surgery treat dry eye syndrome?
    • What other therapies are used to treat dry eye syndrome?
  • Bad Breath Bad breath can result from poor oral hygien habits and may be a sign of other health problems. Bad breath, also called halitosis,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bad Breath Article
    • Bad breath facts
    • What is the definition of bad breath?
    • What are the causes of bad breath?
    • What are the symptoms of bad breath?
    • How is bad breath treated? What can be done to prevent bad breath?
    • What products can be used to eliminate or mask bad breath?
    • When should someone see a doctor about bad breath?
  • Urinary Retention Urinary retention (inability to urinate) may be caused by nerve disease, spinal cord injury, prostate enlargement, infection,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Urinary Retention Article
    • Urinary retention facts*
    • What is the urinary tract?
    • What causes urinary retention?
    • What are the symptoms of urinary retention?
    • How is urinary retention diagnosed?
    • How is urinary retention treated?
    • What are the complications of urinary retention?
    • What are the complications of treatments for urinary retention?
    • Hope through research
    • Where can people find more information about urinary retention?
  • Glaucoma Glaucoma is a common eye condition in which the fluid pressure inside the eye rises because of slowed fluid drainage from the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Glaucoma Article
    • Glaucoma facts
    • What is glaucoma?
    • How common is glaucoma?
    • What causes glaucoma?
    • What are glaucoma risk factors?
    • What are the different types of glaucoma?
    • What are glaucoma symptoms and signs?
    • How is glaucoma diagnosed?
    • How often should someone be checked (screened) for glaucoma?
    • What is the treatment for glaucoma?
    • Glaucoma medications (eyedrops)
    • Glaucoma surgery or laser
    • Can glaucoma be prevented?
    • What is in the future for glaucoma?
  • Fatigue Fatigue can be described in various ways. Sometimes fatigue is described as feeling a lack of energy and motivation (both mental...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fatigue Article
    • Fatigue Facts
    • Fatigue introduction
    • What causes fatigue?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of fatigue?
    • How is the cause of fatigue diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for fatigue?
    • Can fatigue be prevented?
  • Obesity Obesity is the state of being well above one's normal weight. A person has traditionally been considered to be obese if they are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Obesity Article
    • Obesity facts
    • What is obesity?
    • How common is obesity?
    • What are the health risks associated with obesity?
    • What causes obesity?
    • What are other factors associated with obesity?
    • How is body fat measured?
    • What about weight-for-height tables?
    • What is the body mass index (BMI)?
    • Does it matter where body fat is located? (Is it worse to be an "apple" or a "pear"?)
    • What can be done about obesity?
    • What is the role of physical activity and exercise in obesity?
    • What is the role of diet in the treatment of obesity?
    • What is the role of medication in the treatment of obesity?
    • What about herbal fen/phen?
    • What about meal substitutes, artificial sweeteners, and OTC products?
    • What is the role of surgery in the treatment of obesity?
    • How can patients choose a safe and successful weight-loss program?
  • Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA, Mini-Stroke) When a portion of the brain loses blood supply, through a blood clot or embolus, a transient ischemic attack (TIA, mini-stroke)...learn more »
    In This Article
    Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA, Mini-Stroke) Article
    • Transient ischemic attack (TIA) facts
    • What is a transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What are the causes of transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What are the risk factors for transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What are the symptoms of transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • How is transient ischemic attack (TIA) diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What is the prognosis for transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
  • Dysphagia Dysphagia or difficulty in swallowing, swallowing problems. Dysphagia is due to problems in nerve or muscle control. It is...learn more »
    In This Article
    Dysphagia Article
    • Dysphagia facts
    • What is dysphagia?
    • What causes dysphagia?
    • Physical obstruction of the pharynx or esophagus
    • Diseases of the brain
    • Diseases of the smooth muscle of the esophagus
    • Diseases of skeletal muscle of the pharynx
    • Miscellaneous diseases
    • What are the symptoms of dysphagia?
    • Swallowing-related symptoms
    • Non-swallowing-related
    • What is the differential diagnosis for dysphagia?
    • How is dysphagia evaluated and the cause diagnosed?
    • How is dysphagia treated?
    • What is the prognosis for dysphagia?
    • What does the future offer for dysphagia?
  • Claudication Intermittent claudication, or pain and cramping in the lower leg is caused by inadequate blood flow to the leg muscles. This lack...learn more »
    In This Article
    Claudication Article
    • What is claudication?
    • What causes claudication?
    • What are the symptoms of claudication?
    • Why does claudication come and go?
    • What can cause the artery narrowing that leads to claudication?
    • Who typically is affected by claudication?
    • What are the risk factors for claudication and peripheral vascular disease?
    • How is claudication diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for claudication?
    • Can claudication be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis and treatment for patients with intermittent claudication?
  • Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis is a disease of the mucus and sweat glands. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease. The outcome of the disease...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cystic Fibrosis Article
    • Cystic fibrosis facts*
    • What is cystic fibrosis?
    • What are other names for cystic fibrosis?
    • What causes cystic fibrosis?
    • Is cystic fibrosis inherited?
    • Who is at risk for cystic fibrosis?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis?
    • How is cystic fibrosis diagnosed?
    • How is cystic fibrosis treated?
    • Living with cystic fibrosis
    • What is the outlook for cystic fibrosis?
  • Stroke A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain caused by either a blood clot (ischemic) or bleeding...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stroke Article
    • Stroke facts
    • What is a stroke?
    • What are the different types of stroke?
    • What causes a stroke?
    • What are the risk factors for stroke?
    • What is a transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What are the warning signs of a stroke?
    • What are the symptoms of a stroke?
    • How is a stroke diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for stroke?
    • What is the prognosis for stroke?
    • Is recovery after a stroke possible?
    • What is stroke rehabilitation?
    • Can strokes be prevented?
  • Diabetic Diet A diabetic diet, or diabetes diet helps keep blood glucose levels in the target range for patients. Exercise and medication may...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diabetic Diet Article
    • Diabetes facts*
    • Eating and Diabetes
    • Diabetes and Blood Glucose Levels
    • Your Diabetes Medicines
    • Diabetes and Exercise
    • Diabetes and Low Blood Sugar (Hypoglycemia)
    • Diabetes and the Food Pyramid
    • How much should I eat each day?
    • Starches
    • Vegetables
    • Fruits
    • Milk
    • Meat and Meat Substitutes
    • Fats and Sweets
    • Diabetes and Measuring Your Food
    • Diabetes - When You Are Sick
    • How to Find More Help - Living with Diabetes
  • Cataracts A cataract is an eye disease that causes the eye's lens to become cloudy and opaque with decreased vision. Causes of cataracts...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cataracts Article
    • Facts about cataracts
    • What is a cataract?
    • What are the different types of cataracts?
    • What are causes of cataracts?
    • What are risk factors for cataracts?
    • What are the symptoms of cataracts?
    • What are the signs of cataracts?
    • How are cataracts diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for cataracts?
    • What are the different types of cataract surgery, and what risks are involved?
    • What are complications of cataracts?
    • What is the prognosis of cataracts?
    • Can cataracts be prevented?
    • Where can people get more information on cataracts?
  • Diabetes and Foot Problems Diabetes related foot problems can affect your health with two problems: diabetic neuropathy, where diabetes affects the nerves,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diabetes and Foot Problems Article
    • Diabetes and foot problems facts
    • How can diabetes cause foot problems?
    • What are examples and symptoms of foot problems caused by diabetes?
    • How are foot problems caused by diabetes treated?
    • Can diabetes-related foot problems be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for diabetes-related foot problems?
  • Metabolic Syndrome The main features of metabolic syndrome include insulin resistance, hypertension (high blood pressure), cholesterol...learn more »
    In This Article
    Metabolic Syndrome Article
    • What is metabolic syndrome?
    • How is metabolic syndrome defined?
    • How common is metabolic syndrome?
    • What causes, and what are the risk factors of metabolic syndrome?
    • What are the symptoms of metabolic syndrome?
    • Why should I know about metabolic syndrome?
    • What is the treatment for metabolic syndrome?
    • Diet and metabolic syndrome
    • Exercise and metabolic syndrome
    • Cosmetic surgery to remove fat
    • What if lifestyle changes are not enough to treat metabolic syndrome?
    • Summary
  • Diabetic Neuropathy Diabetic neuropathy is a complication of diabetes that causes damage to the nerves; this is related to the blood glucose of the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diabetic Neuropathy Article
    • Diabetic neuropathy facts
    • What is diabetic neuropathy?
    • What are the types of diabetic neuropathy?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of diabetic neuropathy?
    • How is diabetic neuropathy diagnosed?
    • What are treatments for diabetic neuropathy?
    • What are self-care measures to help relieve diabetic neuropathy?
    • Can diabetic neuropathy be prevented?
  • Genetic Disease Genetic disease is a disorder or condition caused by abnormalities in a person's genome. Types of genetic inheritance include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Genetic Disease Article
    • What is a genetic disease?
    • What are the different types of inheritance?
    • Single gene inheritance
    • Multifactorial inheritance
    • Chromosome abnormalities
    • Mitochondrial inheritance
    • What is the human genome?
  • Overactive Bladder Overactive bladder is a sudden involuntary contraction of the muscle wall of the bladder causing urinary urgency (an immediate...learn more »
    In This Article
    Overactive Bladder Article
    • Overactive bladder facts
    • What is an overactive bladder?
    • What are the causes of overactive bladder?
    • Are there any risk factors for overactive bladder?
    • What are symptoms of an overactive bladder?
    • How is overactive bladder diagnosed?
    • What are treatments for an overactive bladder?
    • What is the role of medications in treating overactive bladder?
    • What are treatments for the chronically incontinent?
    • What measures can be taken at home to prevent overactive bladder symptoms?
    • What are some of the complications of overactive bladder?
    • What is the prognosis for overactive bladder?
  • Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis caused by inflammation, breakdown, and eventual loss of cartilage in the joints. Also...learn more »
    In This Article
    Osteoarthritis Article
    • Osteoarthritis facts
    • What is osteoarthritis?
    • What causes osteoarthritis?
    • What are osteoarthritis symptoms and signs?
    • How is osteoarthritis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for osteoarthritis?
    • "If I have minimal or no symptoms with early signs of osteoarthritis, what should I do?"
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for patients with osteoarthritis?
    • Can osteoarthritis be prevented?
    • What does the future hold for osteoarthritis?
    • Where can people get more information about osteoarthritis?
  • Erectile Dysfunction (ED, Impotence) Erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence) is the failure to achieve or maintain an erection. There are many potential underlying...learn more »
    In This Article
    Erectile Dysfunction (ED, Impotence) Article
    • Erectile dysfunction (impotence) facts
    • What is erectile dysfunction?
    • What is normal penis anatomy?
    • How common is erectile dysfunction?
    • How does erection occur?
    • How is erection sustained?
    • What are the risk factors for erectile dysfunction?
    • What causes erectile dysfunction?
    • How is erectile dysfunction diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for erectile dysfunction?
    • What medications are used to treat erectile dysfunction?
    • Oral phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors
    • Sildenafil (Viagra)
    • Vardenafil (Levitra)
    • Tadalafil (Cialis)
    • Avanafil (Stendra)
    • Intracavernosal injections
    • Intraurethral suppositories
    • How effective is testosterone in treating erectile dysfunction?
    • Can low testosterone level be replaced?
    • Vacuum devices
    • Surgery for erectile dysfunction
    • What about psychological therapy for erectile dysfunction?
    • What will research is being done for erectile dysfunction?
  • Diabetes Treatment The major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar....learn more »
    In This Article
    Diabetes Treatment Article
    • What is the treatment for diabetes?
    • Medications for type 2 diabetes
    • Sulfonylureas
    • Meglitinides - (Prandin and Starlix)
    • Medications that decrease the amount of glucose produced by the liver
    • Medications that increase glucose excretion by the kidney
    • Medications that increase the sensitivity of cells to insulin (Actos and Avandia)
    • Medications that decrease the absorption of carbohydrates from the intestine (Precose)
    • Medications that affect glycemic control (Symlin, Byetta, Victoza, Bydureon)
    • DPP-IV inhibitors
    • Combination medications
    • Treatment of diabetes with insulin
    • Different methods of delivering insulin
    • Pre-filled insulin pens
    • Insulin pump
    • Inhaled Insulin
    • Intranasal, Transderm
    • Diabetes diet
    • The future of pancreas transplantation
  • Diabetes and Eye Problems Diabetes and eye problems are generally caused by high blood sugar levels over an extended period of time. Types of eye problems...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diabetes and Eye Problems Article
    • Eye problems and diabetes introduction
    • Cataracts and Diabetes
    • Glaucoma and Diabetes
    • Diabetic Retinopathy
    • Preventing Eye Problems With Diabetes
    • When to Contact Your Doctor About Eye Problems in Diabetes
  • Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH or Forestier's disease) is a form of degenerative arthritis. It is characterized...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis Article
    • Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) facts
    • What is diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis?
    • What causes diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis?
    • What are symptoms and signs of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis?
    • How is diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) for patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis?
    • Can diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis be prevented?
  • Frostbite (Cold Weather-Related Injuries) There are two categories to cold weather-related injuries. 1) no freezing of body tissue (trench foot and chilblains), and 2)...learn more »
    In This Article
    Frostbite (Cold Weather-Related Injuries) Article
    • Frostbite and Cold Weather-Related Injuries Facts
    • Introduction to frostbite and cold weather-related injuries
    • What type of injuries can be caused by cold weather?
    • Cold weather-related injuries without tissue freezing
    • Chilblains
    • Trench foot
    • Frostnip
    • Cold weather-related injuries with tissue freezing
    • Frostbite
    • What are the signs and symptoms of frostbite?
    • What does frostbite look like (frostbite pictures)?
    • How should frostbite and other cold weather-related injuries be treated?
    • What is the recovery time for a frostbite injury?
    • When should a person seek medical care for a cold weather-related injury?
    • Who is most likely to get a cold weather-related injury and what can be done to prevent it?
  • Cholesterol High cholesterol and triglyceride levels increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Getting your cholesterol and triglyceride...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cholesterol Article
    • What is cholesterol?
    • What are the different types of cholesterol?
    • Why is high cholesterol dangerous?
    • Where does cholesterol come from?
    • What are normal cholesterol levels?
    • Which foods can help lower cholesterol?
    • What other lifestyle interventions help lower cholesterol?
    • What medications are available to treat high cholesterol?
  • Childhood Obesity Fast food consumption and lack of exercise are just a couple of causes of childhood obesity. Health effects of childhood obesity...learn more »
    In This Article
    Childhood Obesity Article
    • Childhood obesity facts
    • What is childhood obesity? How is childhood obesity diagnosed?
    • How prevalent is childhood obesity?
    • What causes childhood obesity?
    • What are childhood obesity symptoms and signs?
    • What are risk factors for childhood obesity?
    • What are the risks, complications, and long-term health effects of childhood obesity?
    • What is the treatment for childhood obesity?
    • Can childhood obesity be prevented?
    • What research is being done on childhood obesity?
    • Where can people find more information on childhood obesity?
  • Heart Disease (Coronary Artery Disease) Heart disease (coronary artery disease) occurs when plaque builds up in the coronary arteries, the vessels that supply blood to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Disease (Coronary Artery Disease) Article
    • What is heart disease?
    • What are the risk factors for heart disease?
    • What causes heart disease?
    • What are the symptoms of heart disease?
    • How is heart disease diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for heart disease?
    • What is the prognosis for heart disease?
    • Can heart disease be prevented?
  • Urinary Incontinence in Women Millions of women suffer from urinary incontinence (UI). UI occurs twice as often in women as in men. There are many types of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Urinary Incontinence in Women Article
    • Urinary incontinence (UI) in women facts*
    • What is urinary incontinence?
    • What are the types of urinary incontinence?
    • How is incontinence evaluated?
    • How is incontinence treated?
    • Points to remember
    • Hope through research
    • For more information
  • Gangrene Gangrene may result when blood flow to a tissue is lost or not adequate to keep the tissue alive. There are two types of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Gangrene Article
    • Gangrene facts
    • What is gangrene?
    • What is the difference between wet and dry gangrene?
    • What causes gangrene?
    • What are gangrene symptoms and signs?
    • How is gangrene diagnosed?
    • How is gangrene treated?
    • How can gangrene be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for a patient with gangrene?
  • Urinary Incontinence in Children Urinary incontinence in children (enuresis) is twice as common in boys as in girls and may occur during the daytime or nighttime....learn more »
    In This Article
    Urinary Incontinence in Children Article
    • Urinary incontinence in children facts
    • What is urinary incontinence?
    • How does the urinary system work?
    • What are the different types of urinary incontinence in children?
    • How common is urinary incontinence in children?
    • What causes nighttime incontinence in children?
    • What causes daytime incontinence in children?
    • How do you differentiate between organic and nonorganic causes of urinary incontinence?
    • What is the treatment for urinary incontinence in children?
    • What is the prognosis of urinary incontinence in children?
    • Where can people get more information on urinary incontinence in children?
  • Neuropathic Pain Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition that leads to ongoing pain symptoms. Diabetes, cancer, stroke, HIV, vitamin deficiencies,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Neuropathic Pain Article
    • What is neuropathic pain?
    • What are the risk factors for neuropathic pain?
    • What causes neuropathic pain?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of neuropathic pain?
    • How is neuropathic pain diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for neuropathic pain?
    • What is the prognosis for neuropathic pain?
    • Can neuropathic pain be prevented?
  • Diabetes Second Source article from Government...learn more »
  • Diabetes Second Source article from The Cleveland Clinic...learn more »
  • Diabetes and Kidney Disease In the United States diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure. High blood pressure and high levels of blood glucose...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diabetes and Kidney Disease Article
    • Kidney Disease of Diabetes Facts*
    • The Burden of Kidney Failure
    • The Course of Kidney Disease
    • Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease
    • Effects of High Blood Pressure
    • Preventing and Slowing Kidney Disease
    • Dialysis and Transplantation
    • Good Care Makes a Difference
    • Points to Remember
    • Hope through Research
    • For More Information
  • Controlling Diabetes Second Source article from The Cleveland Clinic...learn more »
  • Diabetes-Related Dental Problems Second Source article from The Cleveland Clinic...learn more »
  • Type 2 Diabetes: Diagnosing Diabetes Second Source article from The Cleveland Clinic...learn more »
  • Type 1 Diabetes Second Source article from The Cleveland Clinic...learn more »
  • Gestational Diabetes Gestational diabetes is a condition that is first recognized during pregnancy and is characterized by high blood sugar....learn more »
    In This Article
    Gestational Diabetes Article
    • What is gestational diabetes?
    • What causes gestational diabetes?
    • What are risk factors for gestational diabetes?
    • What are the symptoms of gestational diabetes?
    • How is gestational diabetes diagnosed?
    • What are the consequences of gestational diabetes for the baby and mother?
    • What is the treatment for gestational diabetes?
    • Can gestational diabetes be prevented?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) for gestational diabetes?
  • Diabetes Prevention The risks for developing type 2 diabetes include family history, ethnicity, birth weight, metabolic syndrome, and obesity....learn more »
    In This Article
    Diabetes Prevention Article
    • Type 2 diabetes prevention facts
    • Introduction to diabetes prevention
    • What is type 2 diabetes?
    • What are the risks factors for developing diabetes?
    • What "red flags" or symptoms point to an increased risk for diabetes?
    • Is gestational diabetes a risk for developing type 2 diabetes later in life?
    • Diabetes prevention and diet
    • Is there anything that can help to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes?
    • Are there medications that can help to prevent type 2 diabetes?
  • Nerve Disease and Bladder Control A nerve problem might affect your bladder control if the nerves that are supposed to carry messages between the brain and the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Nerve Disease and Bladder Control Article
    • What bladder control problems does nerve damage cause?
    • What causes nerve damage?
    • How will the doctor test for nerve damage and bladder control problems?
    • What are the treatments for overactive bladder?
    • How do you do Kegel exercises?
    • What are the treatments for lack of coordination between the bladder and urethra?
    • What are the treatments for urine retention?
    • Hope through research
    • For more information
  • Fungal Meningitis Fungal meningitis is a rare disease that is not contagious. Symptoms include fever, headache, stiff neck, nausea, and vomiting....learn more »
    In This Article
    Fungal Meningitis Article
    • Fungal meningitis facts
    • What causes fungal meningitis?
    • How is fungal meningitis transmitted?
    • What are risk factors for fungal meningitis?
    • What are fungal meningitis symptoms and signs?
    • How is fungal meningitis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for fungal meningitis?
    • Can fungal meningitis be prevented?
  • Diabetes: Tips for Managing Type 1 and 2 Diabetes at Home Managing your diabetes is a full time committment. The goal of diabetic therapy is to control blood glucose levels and prevent...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diabetes: Tips for Managing Type 1 and 2 Diabetes at Home Article
    • Diabetes home care management facts
    • What is diabetes?
    • What is the treatment for diabetes?
    • Exercise therapy for diabetes
    • Diet therapy for diabetes
    • Diabetes and drug therapy
    • How is diabetic treatment monitored at home?
    • Blood glucose reagent strips
    • Blood glucose meters
    • Urine glucose tests
    • Tests for urinary ketones
    • What additional monitoring does the doctor do?
    • Blood glucose
    • Continuous glucose sensors (CGMS)
    • Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) testing
  • Hypothermia (Extended Exposure to Cold) Hyothermia or extreme exposure to cold can be classified as either accidental hypothermia (unintentional cold exposure) and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hypothermia (Extended Exposure to Cold) Article
    • What is hypothermia?
    • What are the risk factors for hypothermia?
    • What body parts are more susceptible to hypothermia?
    • What causes hypothermia?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of hypothermia?
    • When should I call my doctor for hypothermia?
    • How is hypothermia diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for hypothermia?
    • Home remedies for hypothermia
    • What items should I have to be prepared to prevent hypothermia?
    • What is the prognosis for hypothermia?
  • Sex, Urinary, and Bladder Problems of Diabetes Having diabetes can mean early onset and increased severity of bladder symptoms (urinary incontinence and urinary tract...learn more »
    In This Article
    Sex, Urinary, and Bladder Problems of Diabetes Article
    • Sexual and urological problems of diabetes facts*
    • Introduction to sexual and urological problems of diabetes
    • Diabetes and sexual problems
    • What sexual problems can occur in men with diabetes?
    • What sexual problems can occur in women with diabetes?
    • Diabetes and urologic problems
    • Who is at risk for developing sexual and urologic problems of diabetes?
    • Can diabetes-related sexual and urologic problems be prevented?
    • Sexual and Urologic Problems of Diabetes At A Glance
    • Hope through research
  • Listeria Listeria is a type of bacteria that can cause food poisoning. Listeriosis symptoms include diarrhea, nausea and fever. Pregnant...learn more »
    In This Article
    Listeria Article
    • Listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes infection) facts
    • What is listeriosis? What causes listeriosis?
    • What are listeriosis symptoms and signs?
    • What are the risk factors for listeriosis?
    • How is listeriosis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for listeriosis?
    • How does a person get listeriosis?
    • Can listeriosis be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis (outcome) for Listeria infections?
    • If a person has eaten recalled food potentially contaminated with Listeria, what should he or she do?
    • What is the government doing about listeriosis?
  • Balanitis (Penis Disorder) Balantis is a condition in which the skin of the head of the penis becomes inflamed. If the foreskin is also inflamed, it is...learn more »
    In This Article
    Balanitis (Penis Disorder) Article
    • What is balanitis?
    • What causes balanitis?
    • What are the symptoms of balanitis?
    • How is balanitis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for balanitis?
    • Over-the-counter remedies for balanitis
    • Medications for balanitis
    • Can balanitis be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for balanitis?
  • Fitness Regular physical activity can reduce the risk of disease. Regular exercise can also reduce the symptoms of stress and anxiety....learn more »
    In This Article
    Fitness Article
    • The importance of physical activity and fitness
    • Why should I be active?
    • Can everyone benefit from physical activity?
    • What are the recommendations for increasing fitness for youth, adults, and seniors?
    • How do I get started with a fitness plan?
    • When is a medical evaluation necessary?
    • How can I make physical activity a part of my life?
    • What are the components of physical fitness?
    • Fitness terms
  • Stroke Prevention Stroke is the third leading killer in the United States. Some of the warning signs of stroke include sudden confusion, trouble...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stroke Prevention Article
    • Introduction
    • What is a Stroke?
    • What are Warning Signs of a Stroke?
    • What are Risk Factors for a Stroke?
    • What Are the Treatable Risk Factors?
    • Do You Know Your Stroke Risk?
  • Heart Attack Pathology: Photo Essay A heart attack is a layperson's term for a sudden blockage of a coronary artery. This photo essay inlcudes graphics, pictures,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attack Pathology: Photo Essay Article
    • What is a Heart Attack?
    • What are the structures and functions of a normal coronary artery?
    • What happens to the coronary artery in atherosclerosis?
    • Who gets coronary artery plaques and what happens to the plaques?
    • What happens to the heart muscle after a person survives a Heart Attack?
    • Can a person have more than one heart attack?
  • Lower Cholesterol Levels with Diet and Medication Cholesterol is naturally produced by the body, and is a building block for cell membranes and hormones. Low-density lipoprotein...learn more »
    In This Article
    Lower Cholesterol Levels with Diet and Medication Article
    • Cholesterol levels facts
    • What is cholesterol?
    • What are LDL and HDL cholesterol?
    • What determines the level of LDL cholesterol in the blood?
    • Does lowering LDL cholesterol prevent heart attacks and strokes?
    • How can LDL cholesterol levels be lowered?
    • What are "normal" cholesterol blood levels?
    • What are the 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines?
    • Why is HDL the good cholesterol?
    • What are LDL/HDL and total/HDL ratios?
    • How can levels of HDL cholesterol be increased?
    • What are triglycerides and VLDL?
    • Do high triglyceride levels cause atherosclerosis?
    • What causes elevated triglyceride levels?
    • How can elevated blood triglyceride levels be treated?
    • What are cholesterol-lowering foods?
    • What medications are available to lower cholesterol, lipids, and triglycerides?
    • Is lowering LDL cholesterol enough?
  • Disease Prevention in Men Disease prevention in men includes routine screening tests that are part of basic prevention medicine. Take an active role in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Disease Prevention in Men Article
    • Disease prevention in men introduction
    • High blood pressure (hypertension)
    • Hypercholesterolemia (hyperlipidemia, dyslipidemia)
    • Type II diabetes mellitus
    • HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
    • Cancer of colon and rectum/polyps of colon and rectum
    • Prostate cancer
    • Glaucoma
    • Melanoma and other skin cancers
    • Bladder cancer
  • Disease Prevention in Women Disease prevention in women includes screening tests that are a basic part of prevention medicine. All screening tests are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Disease Prevention in Women Article
    • Disease prevention in women overview
    • Osteoporosis
    • Breast cancer
    • High blood pressure (hypertension)
    • Cancer of the cervix
    • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    • Hypercholesterolemia (hyperlipidemia, dyslipidemia)
    • Type II diabetes mellitus
    • Cancer of colon and rectum / polyps of colon and rectum
    • Bladder cancer
    • Glaucoma
    • Melanoma and other skin cancers
  • Pain Management: Neuropathic Pain Neuropathic pain is chronic pain resulting from injury to the nervous system. The injury can be to the central nervous system...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pain Management: Neuropathic Pain Article
    • Introduction to neuropathic pain
    • What causes neuropathic pain?
    • What are the symptoms of neuropathic pain?
    • How is neuropathic pain diagnosed?
    • How is neuropathic pain treated?
  • Diabetes: Caring for Your Diabetes at Special Times Taking care of a disease such as diabetes is a life-long process. Learn how to care for yourself or loved one with diabetes in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diabetes: Caring for Your Diabetes at Special Times Article
    • Introduction
    • When You Are Sick
    • When You're at School or Work
    • When You're Away from Home
    • When There's and Emergency or Natural Disaster
    • When You're Planning a Pregnancy
    • People Who Can Help You
    • Other Helpful Tips to Control Your Diabetes
  • Treating the Flu in People with Health Risks Certain portions of the population are at an increased risk of suffering serious complications from the flu. Some of these...learn more »
    In This Article
    Treating the Flu in People with Health Risks Article
    • Treating the flu in people with health risks facts*
    • Do you have Asthma, Diabetes or Chronic Heart Disease?
    • Why am I at greater risk of serious flu complications?
    • Can the flu be treated?
    • What should I do if I think I have the flu?
    • Should I still get a flu vaccine?
    • What are the benefits of antiviral drugs?
    • What are the possible side effects of antiviral drugs?
    • When should antiviral drugs be taken for treatment?
    • What antiviral drugs are recommended?
    • How long should antiviral drugs be taken?
    • Can children and pregnant women take antiviral drugs?
    • Who should take antiviral drugs?
    • What are the health and age factors that are known to increase a person's risk of getting serious complications from the flu?