Dr. Roxanne Dryden-Edwards is an adult, child, and adolescent psychiatrist. She is a former Chair of the Committee on Developmental Disabilities for the American Psychiatric Association, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, and Medical Director of the National Center for Children and Families in Bethesda, Maryland.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Depression is a condition beyond normal
sadness that can significantly
interfere with the child's ability to function.
Depression affects about 2% of
preschool and school-age children.
Depression in children does not have one
single cause but rather a number of biological, psychological, and environmental
risk factors that contribute to its development.
General symptoms of
depression, regardless of age, include having a depressed or irritable mood for at
least two weeks and having at least five clinical signs and symptoms.
the third leading cause of death in youth 10-24 years of age.
In order to
diagnose depression, a health-care professional will likely conduct or refer for
an extensive medical interview and physical examination and ask standard mental-health questions.
Treatment for childhood depression may include addressing
any medical conditions that cause or worsen the condition. It can also include
lifestyle adjustments, psychotherapy, and, for moderate to severe depression,
Interpersonal therapy (ITP) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
are the major approaches commonly used to treat childhood depression.
About 60% of children who take antidepressant medications get better. It may
take anywhere from one to six weeks of taking medication at its effective dose
to start feeling better.
Childhood depression is a risk factor for developing
a number of other mental-health symptoms and disorders.
Depression is the
leading cause of disability in the United States in people over 5
years of age.
Attempts at prevention of childhood depression tend to address risk
factors, strengthen protective factors, and use approaches that are appropriate
for the child's developmental level.
Family members and friends are advised to
seek mental-health evaluation and treatment for the depressed child.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an emotional illness that was first formally diagnosed in soldiers and war veterans and is usually caused by terribly frightening, life-threatening, or otherwise highly unsafe ex"...