• Medical Author:
    Roxanne Dryden-Edwards, MD

    Dr. Roxanne Dryden-Edwards is an adult, child, and adolescent psychiatrist. She is a former Chair of the Committee on Developmental Disabilities for the American Psychiatric Association, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, and Medical Director of the National Center for Children and Families in Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Medical Editor: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
    William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR

    William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR

    Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.

Quick GuideLearn to Spot Depression: Symptoms, Warning Signs, Medication

Learn to Spot Depression: Symptoms, Warning Signs, Medication

Where can people find more information about depression?

For further information about depression, please visit the following sites:
Suicide Awareness Voices of Education (SAVE)

APA: Women and Depression (American Psychological Association)

For additional information and help, you can write or call the following organizations:

D/ART/Public Inquiries; National Institute of Mental Health
Room 15C-05
5600 Fishers Lane
Rockville, MD 20857

National Foundation for Depressive Illness
20 Charles Street
New York, NY 10014

National Depressive and Manic Depressive Association
730 N. Franklin, Suite 501
Chicago, IL 60601
Phone: 800-826-3632
Phone: 312-642-0049
Fax: 312-642-72433

National Mental Health Association
1021 Prince Street
Alexandria, VA 22314-2971
800-969-NMHA (6642)

National Alliance for the Mentally Ill
2101 Wilson Boulevard
Suite 302
Arlington, VA 22201
HelpLine: 800-950-NAMI [6264]

National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders (NARSAD)
60 Cutter Mill Road, Suite 404
Great Neck, NY 11021 USA
Infoline: 800-829-8289

National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
5600 Fishers Lane
Rockville, MD 20857 (for a suicide hotline near you)

Surgeon General's Report on Mental Illness
To receive a copy of this report, write or call:
Mental Health
Pueblo, Co 81009

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) for the Depression Awareness, Recognition, and Treatment (DART) program furnished a portion of the foregoing information.


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American Psychological Association. "Men: A Different Depression." Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, July 14, 2005.

Anderson, J.L., et al. "Lux versus wavelength in light treatment of seasonal affective disorder." Acta Psychiatr Scandanavia 120 (2009): 203-212.

Andrews, G., M. Szabo, and J. Burns. "Preventing major depression in young people." The British Journal of Psychiatry 181 (2002): 460-462.

Barnhill, G.P., and B.S Myles. "Attributional style and depression in adolescents with Asperger Syndrome." Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 3.3 (2001): 175-182.

Bender, E. "Depression treatment in Black women must consider social factors." Psychiatric News 40.23 December 2005: 14.

Bhatia, S.C., and Bhatia, S.K. "Depression in Women: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations." American Family Physician. July 1999.

Biddle, L., A. Brock, S.T. Brookes, and D. Gunnell. "Suicide rates in young men in England and Wales in the 21st century: time trend study." British Medical Journal February 2008.

Bluthenthal, R., L. Jones, M. Ellison, P. Koegel, K. Minnium, A. Lucas-Wright, and K. Wells. "Witness for Wellness: A Community-University Participatory Research Mental Health Initiative." Abstract Academy Health Meeting, 21: abstract no. 1104, 2004.

Bonelli, R., R.E. Dew, H.G. Koenig, et al. "Religious and spiritual factors in depression: review and integration of the research." Depression Research and Treatment 2012: 1-8.

Clayton, A.H., and Ninan, P.T. "Depression or Menopause? Presentation and Management of Major Depressive Disorder in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women." Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 12.1 (2010).

Coppen, A. "Treatment of depression: time to consider folic acid and vitamin B12." Journal of Psychopharmacology 19.1 (2005): 59-65.

Cristancho, M.A., J.P. O'Reardon, M.E. Thase. "Atypical Depression in the 21st Century: Diagnostic and Treatment Issues." Psychiatric Times Jan. 2011: 42-46.

Dimeff, L., and M.M. Linehan. "Dialectical behavioral therapy in a nutshell." The California Psychologist 34 (2001):: 10-13.

Dixon, L., L. Postrado, J. Delahanty, et al. "The association of medical comorbidity in schizophrenia and poor physical and mental health." Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 187.8 August 1999: 496-502.

Egede, L.E., D. Zheng, and K. Simpson. "Comorbid depression is associated with increased health care costs and expenditures in individuals with diabetes." Diabetes Care 25.3 March 2002: 6-70.

Emslie, G.J., T. Mayes, G. Porta, et al. "Treatment of resistant depression in adolescents (TORDIA): week 24 outcomes." American Journal of Psychiatry 167.7 May 2010.

Ernst, E. "Advances in psychiatric treatment." The Royal College of Psychiatry 13 (2007): 312-316.

Fairbrook, S.W. "The Physical and Mental Health Effects of Community Violence Exposure in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Youth." Journal of Student Nursing Research 6.1 (2013): 1-30.

Findling, R.L., Arnold, L.E., Greenhill, L.L., et al. "Diagnosing and Managing Complicated ADHD." Primary Care Companion Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 10.3 (2008): 229-236.

Fournier, J.C., R.J. DeRubeis, S.D. Hollon, S. Dimidjian, et al. "Antidepressant drug effects and depression severity: a patient-level meta analysis." Journal of the American Medical Association 303.1 Jan. 2010.

Goodwin, E., and R.C. Whitaker. "A prospective study of the role of depression in the development and persistence of adolescent obesity." Pediatrics 110.3 September 2002: 497-504.

Griffiths, R.R., L.M. Juliano, and A.L. Chausmer. "Caffeine pharmacology and clinical effects." In: Graham A.W., Schultz T.K., Mayo-Smith M.F., Ries R.K. & Wilford, B.B. (eds.) Principles of Addiction Medicine, Third Edition. Chevy Chase, MD: American Society of Addiction, 2003: 193-224.

Hegarty, K., J. Gunn, P. Chondros, and R. Small. "Association between depression and abuse by partners of women attending general practice: descriptive, cross sectional survey." British Medical Journal 328 March 2004: 621-624.

Hull, P.R., and D'Arcy, C. "Acne, Depression and Suicide." Dermatology Clinics 23.4 Oct. 2005: 665-674.

Katon, W.J., E.H.B. Lin, M. Von Korff, et al. "Collaborative care for patients with depression and chronic illnesses." New England Journal of Medicine 363 (2010): 2611-2620.

Katon, W., J. Unützer, and J. Russo. "Major depression: the importance of clinical characteristics and treatment response to prognosis." Depression and Anxiety 27 (2010): 19–26.

Kendler, K.S., C.O. Gardner, and C.A. Prescott. "Toward a comprehensive developmental model for major depression in men." American Journal of Psychiatry 163 January 2006: 115-124.

Lin, K.M., and F. Cheung. "Mental health issues for Asian Americans." Psychiatric Services 50 June (1999): 774-780.

Maletic, V., M. Robinson, T. Oakes, et al. "Neurobiology of depression: an integrated view of key findings." International Journal of Clinical Practice 61.12 Dec. 2007: 2030-2040.

Mallikarjun, P.K., and F. Oyebode. "Prevention of postnatal depression." Perspectives in Public Health 125.5 Sept. 2005: 221-226.

Michelson, D., J. Bancroft, S. Targum, et al. "Female sexual dysfunction associated with andtidepressant administration: A randomized placebo-controlled study of pharmacologic intervention." American Journal of Psychiatry 157 (2000): 239-243.

Mills, T.C., J. Paul, R. Stall, L. Pollack, et al. "Distress and depression in men who have sex with men: the urban men's health study." American Journal of Psychiatry 161 February 2004: 278-285.

National Institute on Aging. Depression: Don't Let the Blues Hang Around, 3/31/08.

O'Reardon, J.P., H.B. Solvason, P.G. Janicak, et al. "The efficacy and safety of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the acute treatment of major depression: a multisite randomized controlled trial." Biological Psychiatry 62 (2007): 1208-1216.

Parry, J. "Vitamin D supplements may cut depression symptoms." Health Day News July 2009.

Patten, S.B., and E.J. Love. "Can drugs cause depression? A review of the evidence." Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience 18.3 May 1998: 92-102.

Payne, R.A., S.E. Back, T. Wright, et al. "Alcohol dependence in women: comorbidities can complicate treatment." Current Psychiatry 8.6 June 2009.

Robinson, D.S. "Vitamins, monoamines and depression." Primary Psychiatry 16.2 (2009): 19-21.

Roy-Byrne, P.P., P. Stang, H.U. Wittchen, B. Ustin, E. Walters, and R.C. Kessler. "Lifetime panic-depression comorbidity in the National Comorbidity Study: Association with symptoms, impairment, course and help seeking." The Royal College of Psychiatrists 176 (2000): 229-235.

Schmutte, T., M. Connell, M. Weiland, et al. "Stemming the tide of suicide in older white men: a call to action." American Journal of Men's Health 3.3 September 2009: 189-200.

Son, S.E., and J.T. Kirchner. "Depression in children and adolescents." American Family Physician 62.10 November 2000.

Swenson, C.J., J. Baxter, S.M. Shetterly, et al. "Depressive symptoms in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white rural elderly: the San Luis Valley health and aging study." American Journal of Epidemiology 152.11(2000): 1048-1055.

Takeuchu, D.T., N. Zane, S. Hong, et al. "Disentangling mental health disparities: immigration-related factors and mental disorders among Asian Americans." American Journal of Public Health 97.1  January (2007): 84-90.

United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Data and Statistics Fatal injury Report for 2014.

van Wormer, K. "The dynamics of murder-suicide in domestic situations." Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention 8 (2008): 274-282.

von Kanel, R., and S. Begre. "Depression after myocardial infarction: unraveling the mystery of poor cardiovascular prognosis and the role of beta blocker therapy." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 8 (2006): 2215-2217.

Watkins, D., B. Green, B. Rivas, and K. Rowell. "Depression and Black men: implications for future research." Journal of Men's Health 3.3 September 2006: 227-235.

Wisconsin Diabetes Advisory Group. Tools and resources for depression. Essential Diabetes Mellitus Care Guidelines, revised edition, April 2001.

Young, S.N. "Folate and Depression -- A Neglected Problem." Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience 32.2 Mar. 2007: 80-82.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 12/1/2016

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