Dementia (cont.)

Other rare hereditary dementias

Other rare hereditary dementias include Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker (GSS) disease, fatal familial insomnia, familial British dementia, and familial Danish dementia. Symptoms of GSS typically include ataxia and progressive dementia that begins when people are between 50 and 60 years old. The disease may last for several years before patients eventually die. Fatal familial insomnia causes degeneration of a brain region called the thalamus, which is partially responsible for controlling sleep. It causes a progressive insomnia that eventually leads to a complete inability to sleep. Other symptoms may include poor reflexes, dementia, hallucinations, and eventually coma. It can be fatal within 7 to 13 months after symptoms begin but may last longer. Familial British dementia and familial Danish dementia have been linked to two different defects in a gene found on chromosome 13. The symptoms of both diseases include progressive dementia, paralysis, and loss of balance.

Secondary Dementias

Dementia may occur in patients who have other disorders that primarily affect movement or other functions. These cases are often referred to as secondary dementias. The relationship between these disorders and the primary dementias is not always clear. For instance, people with advanced Parkinson's disease, which is primarily a movement disorder, sometimes develop symptoms of dementia. Many Parkinson's patients also have amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles like those found in AD. The two diseases may be linked in a yet-unknown way, or they may simply coexist in some people. People with Parkinson's and associated dementia sometimes show signs of Lewy body dementia or progressive supranuclear palsy at autopsy, suggesting that these diseases may also overlap with Parkinson's or that Parkinson's is sometimes misdiagnosed.

Other disorders that may include symptoms of dementia include multiple sclerosis; presenile dementia with motor neuron disease, also called ALS dementia; olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA); Wilson's disease; and normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH)


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